About This Chapter
Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Digestion - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The human digestive system and anatomy of the stomach and intestines is the focus of this chapter, which features lessons on the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, functions of the pancreas and the role the gall bladder plays in digestion. Instructors provide definitions of key concepts and teach you about the mouth, throat and esophagus. You'll get an in-depth look at the small intestine, including a lesson on its anatomy and functions, and study the large intestine, rectum and liver. This chapter is designed to teach you about:
- Processes that occur in the upper gastrointestinal tract
- How the mouth starts the digestive process
- Gastric juices, pepsin and chime
- Nutrient absorption in the small intestine
- Processes of the rectum
|Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract||Provides an overview of the digestive process and the functions of the mouth, throat and stomach. Defines related key terms, including pepsin, amylase and pyloric sphincter.|
|Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract||Examines how the duodenum digests food and explains lipid digestion. Describes how absorption occurs in the small intestine and summarizes the functions of the large intestine and rectum.|
|Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth||Defines saliva, salivary glands, salivary amylase and alimentary canal. Explains mechanical digestion and chemical digestion: the two ways that food is broken down in the mouth.|
|Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus||Describes deglutition and lists the divisions of the pharynx. Discusses the purpose of the soft palate and how peristalsis works in the esophagus. Defines key terms, including lower esophageal sphincter and epiglottis.|
|Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls||Details the work of the pyloric sphincter, rugae, mucosa and gastric pits and glands. Examines the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and their purposes.|
|Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices||Explains how the mechanical digestion process of churning works and how gastric juices break down proteins through chemical digestion. Assesses the roles of pepsin and chief cells and what causes peptic ulcers. Defines parietal cells, gastrin and chime.|
|What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions||Explains how food digestion and nutrient absorption occur in the small intestine. Describes the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Discusses segmentation, pendular movement and enterogastric reflex.|
|What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion||Depicts the enzymes that are produced in the pancreas and explains how they contribute to digestion. Includes discussion of trypsin, chymotrypsin and pancreatic lipase. Explains why the pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine gland.|
|The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion||Examines the uses for the bile produced in the liver and how the common bile duct works. Defines jaundice. Summarizes the roles of secretin and cholecystokinin.|
|Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement||Describes how enterogastric reflex is triggered. Explains how movement through the small intestine is regulated by peristalsis, segmentation and pendular movement.|
|Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion||Demonstrates how microvilli, villi and circular folds work to absorb nutrients. Describes the purposes for brush border and lacteals.|
|Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine||Lists the components of the large intestine, including cecum, appendix, colon, rectum and anal canal. Examines the four sections of the colon and defines haustra.|
|Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption||Describes how waste is eliminated from the digestive tract. Summarizes feces, mass movements, constipation and diarrhea. Shows how defecation is controlled by anal sphincters.|
1. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
2. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth
The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.
4. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus
After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.
5. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls
In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.
6. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices
When food enters your stomach, it is mechanically broken down by a process called churning. In this lesson you will learn about this process and the chemical break down of proteins within the stomach by the enzyme pepsin.
7. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.
8. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion
Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
9. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.
10. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement
The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.
11. Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion
The majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn about unique modifications within the walls of the small intestine, such as microvilli, villi, and circular folds. These structures increase absorption of nutrients.
12. Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine
The large intestine is the made up of the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal. In this lesson, you will learn about the anatomical features and basic functions of these large intestine segments.
13. Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption
The large intestine is the final processing area for digested food. In this lesson, you will learn how the large intestine removes water from undigested food and prepares for the elimination of feces through the anus.
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