About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering GED science material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn GED science. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the origins of the universe or the astronomy field
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about astronomy
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the astronomy chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the astronomy chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any astronomy question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an astronomy unit of a standard GED science course. Topics covered include:
- Origins of the universe
- Types of telescopes
- Star formation and types
- Life cycle of the sun
- Neutron stars and black holes
- Galaxy formation
- Inner, outer and dwarf planets
- Theories on the formation of Earth and the moon
- Asteroids, meteorites and comets
- Space travel
1. The Scientific Field of Astronomy
Space is a large and exciting place, full of things we have yet to discover. Astronomy aims to uncover the mysteries of space, something people have been fascinated with as long as they have been on Earth.
2. Origins of the Universe: The Big Bang and Expanding & Contracting Universes
Students will learn the origins of the universe, the Big Bang theory, the timeline of the universe, how the universe is still expanding to this day, and what astronomers expect the universe to look like in the future.
3. Evidence for the Big Bang Theory: Background Radiation, Red-Shift and Expansion
Discover what evidence exists to support the Big Bang theory of the birth of the universe. Learn how cosmic background radiation, the red shift of light and the ongoing expansion of the universe led scientists to believe that the universe was started with the Big Bang.
4. Star Formation: Main Sequence, Dwarf & Giant Stars
Learn how stars are born, beginning with a protostar. Then learn about stars in later stages of life, including main sequence stars, brown dwarfs, red giants, and black holes.
5. Types of Telescopes: Radio, Reflecting & Refracting Telescopes
Learn about the different types of telescopes that astronomers use: X-ray, radio, gamma ray, reflecting and refracting. Learn what the differences are between them and what different things they show us about the universe.
6. Galaxy Formation: Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular Galaxies
This lesson explains how galaxies form, starting with the Big Bang. You'll also learn about the solar nebula hypothesis and three galaxy types, including spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies.
7. Types of Stars by Size, Color and Life Cycle
Learn to identify the different sizes and colors of stars and how they relate to the star life cycle. In this lesson, we'll talk about spectral classification, how many stars there are of each type and the approximate color of the different classes of stars.
8. Structure of the Sun
Discover the layers of the sun, including the core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Find out which layers you can see from Earth. Investigate what sunspots and solar flares are.
9. Stages of the Sun's Life Cycle
Discover our Sun, the provider of energy for life on Earth. Learn how the Sun was born, how it lives as a main sequence star, how it will age into a red giant and how it will die as a white dwarf.
10. Supernova and Supergiant Star Life Cycle
Learn about one of the biggest explosions known to humankind - a supernova. Follow a star's life cycle and learn how a star changes from a red giant to a supernova to a black hole or neutron star.
11. Life Cycle of Neutron Stars
Discover the life of a neutron star, including how it's born after a supernova explosion and how its extreme pressure causes protons and electrons to combine into neutrons. Discover also how pulsars are rotating neutron stars that will eventually slow down to become regular neutron stars.
12. Life Cycle of Black Holes
Learn about black holes, their myths and their reality. Learn how black holes form after stars undergo supernovae and create singularities. Discover how big black holes grow, how scientists find black holes and where black holes are located in the universe.
13. Inner Planets of the Solar System: Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars
Take a tour of the four inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Known as the terrestrial planets, find out what makes each of them unique and how they are different from the outer planets, the gas giants.
14. Formation of the Earth: Theories
In this lesson, the theory of how the planet Earth formed will be discussed. This includes looking at how it differentiated into three layers, how it formed its atmosphere, water, and land features, and how it continues to evolve today.
15. Formation of the Moon: Theories
Explore the four major theories on the formation of the Moon. The theories include the fission theory, capture theory, condensation theory and giant impact theory. Also look at both information supporting and flaws found in these theories.
16. Planetary Predictors of Extraterrestrial Life
Investigate what is needed for life to exist anywhere and the implications for life in our solar system beyond Earth. Consider Mars and some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, including Europa, Callisto, Ganymede and Enceladus.
17. Outer Planets of the Solar System: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Take a tour of the outer planets of our solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Find out what makes each of these gas giants unique and learn about Pluto, a dwarf planet.
18. Dwarf Planets of the Solar System: Pluto, Eris, Haumea & Ceres
Discover why Pluto had to leave the league of planets and was downgraded to a dwarf planet. Learn the definitions for planet and dwarf planet. Find out about the currently classified dwarf planets in our solar system: Pluto, Eris, Ceres, Haumea and Makemake.
19. Asteroids, Meteorites & Comets: Definitions and Characteristics
This lesson will cover the definitions and characteristics of asteroids, comets and meteorites. It will also explore what impact they have had on Earth and the impact they might have in the future.
20. Space Travel: History, Dangers & Benefits
Space is fascinating. Humans have been sending objects into space for decades, trying to learn about Earth and what's beyond. But while space travel can be beneficial, there are also risks that come along with exploring the rest of the universe.
21. About the Moon: Phases & Facts
Have you ever wondered if the Moon is made of cheese? Learn the truth about the world's most famous satellite in this lesson packed with basic stats, orbit info, phase details, and other fun facts.
22. Galaxy: Definition & Explanation
Galaxies are collections of stars, dust and gas rotating around super massive black holes. This lesson will cover the structures and types of galaxies, including spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies.
23. Massive Star: Definition, Facts & Life Cycle
Massive stars are just as interesting as they are huge. If you want to learn some big facts about some enormous entities, then check out this lesson for information about the lives of these super stars.
24. Proto-Galaxies: Definition & Explanation
A proto-galaxy is a cloud of dust and gas, primarily hydrogen and helium, that is forming into a galaxy from the force of gravity. This lesson will define and go over the processes of a proto-galaxy.
25. Solar Nebular Hypothesis: Definition & Explanation
The solar nebula theory describes how our solar system formed from a nebula about 4.5 billion years ago. This lesson will cover the aspects of the theory. Afterwards, you will have a chance to complete a quiz to test your knowledge.
26. Space Probe: Definition & Facts
For hundreds of years, astronomers had only the telescope to study stars and planets. Modern scientists have come a long way since then, with the invention of the space probe. In this lesson, we will learn what a space probe is as well as highlight a few noteworthy probes.
27. The Big Dipper Constellation: Facts & North Star
The Big Dipper is one of the most famous constellations in the sky. . . or is it? This lesson will explore these seven easy-to-locate stars and their relation to Polaris, the North Star.
28. What is a Solar System? - Planets & Model
The solar system consists of all the matter that lies within the gravitational pull of the sun. This lesson will describe the formation of the solar system along with the objects in it. At the end there will be a quiz to test your knowledge.
29. Mercury: Facts & Retrograde
Bigger is not always better. For example, just check out the tiniest planet in our solar system, Mercury. In this lesson you will learn that despite Mercury's miniature dimensions, it tops the others in several ways.
30. Meteor: Definition & Facts
In this lesson you will learn what a meteor is, its composition, its origin, and how it is different from a meteoroid and a meteorite. A short quiz will follow.
31. Meteorite: Definition & Types
Meteors are pieces of space debris that enter the Earth's atmosphere. If they reach the Earth's surface, they are then known as meteorites. This article discusses meteorites, their classifications, and nomenclature.
32. Olympus Mons: Facts & Height
If Mars is ever open for tourism, Earth's mountain climbers might be the first to sign up. In this lesson, you will get all the little details about Mars's big beast of a mountain, Olympus Mons.
33. Oocytes: Definition & Maturation
The road to maturation for an oocyte can take most of a lifetime, and there are no guarantees for survival. Learn what it takes to navigate development for this essential part of reproduction.
34. Optical Telescope: Facts & Overview
This lesson will explain what optical telescopes are, their history, how they work, and how they're used. We will also review the three types of telescopes, including the kinds of aberration (distortion) from which they can suffer. A short quiz will follow.
35. Planet Uranus: Facts, Moons & Temperature
Uranus is the third largest planet in the solar system. As a gas giant, Uranus is made of gaseous elements. This lesson will cover the properties of Uranus, and afterwards there will be a quiz to test your knowledge.
36. Planetary Nebula: Definition & Facts
Planetary nebulas are perhaps one of the most spectacular sights in the night sky. Learn the definition of a planetary nebula and take a look at some of the most famous ones in the universe in this lesson.
37. Quasar: Definition & Overview
In this lesson we will explain what quasars are, why they were so puzzling when discovered, and how they can look quite different when observed from different angles. A short quiz will follow.
38. Radio Telescope: Definition, Parts & Facts
This lesson will explain what a radio telescope is, how radio telescopes work, the parts that make them up, what each of those parts does, and why radio telescopes are important.
39. Refracting Telescope: Definition, Parts & Facts
This lesson will explain what a refracting telescope is and how it works, including each of the parts that make it up, and its relevance in historical and modern astronomy.
40. Satellite: Definition & Uses
In this lesson, you will learn what a satellite is, the distinction between natural and artificial satellites, and some of their practical uses. A short quiz will follow.
41. Saturn's Moon, Enceladus: Facts & Overview
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon in Saturn's orbit. It is interesting to astronomers because there is believed to be tectonic activity on the moon. This lesson will cover the facts of Enceladus.
42. Solar Flare: Definition & Effects
This lesson will explain what a solar flare is, how we think they form, and describe the effects of a particularly large solar flare on the Earth. A short quiz will follow.
43. Stephen Hawking: Theory, Biography & Quotes
Stephen Hawking is one of the greatest physicists of our time. His work with cosmology and black holes has led to several new discoveries and theories about the nature of existence. This lesson will cover his life and theories.
44. Sunspot: Definition, Cycle & Theory
Sunspots are dark regions on the sun that have been observed since the time of Galileo. It is believed that sunspots are areas of high magnetism on the sun. This lesson will cover information about sunspots.
45. Supernova: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson you will learn the definition of a supernova and what conditions are necessary for a star to become a supernova. You will also learn what happens to the star after the supernova.
46. Terrestrial Planets: Definition & Characteristics
In this lesson, you will learn what a terrestrial planet is, what the characteristics of terrestrial planets are, and a little bit about each of the terrestrial planets in our own solar system.
47. The Dwarf Planet Makemake: Facts & Overview
Makemake is a dwarf planet found in the outer edges of the solar system. This lesson addresses Makemake, its characteristics, and its location in our solar system within the Kuiper Belt.
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Other chapters within the GED Science: Help and Review course
- Scientific Study Skills and Foundations: Help and Review
- The Periodic Table, Atoms and Elements: Help and Review
- GED Science - Compounds and Chemical Bonds: Help and Review
- GED Science - Chemical Reactions, Acids, and Bases: Help and Review
- GED Science - Nuclear Energy: Help and Review
- GED Science - Energy and Heat: Help and Review
- GED Science - Mechanics: Help and Review
- GED Science - Sound and Light Waves: Help and Review
- GED Science - Electricity: Help and Review
- GED Science - Magnetism: Help and Review
- GED Science - Biomolecules: Help and Review
- GED Science - Cell Biology: Help and Review
- GED Science - The Cell Cycle and Cell Division: Help and Review
- Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration: Help & Review
- GED Science - Classification of Organisms: Help and Review
- GED Science - Genetics and Evolution: Help and Review
- GED Science - Animal Reproduction and Development: Help and Review
- GED Science - The Reproductive System: Help and Review
- GED Science Organ Systems: Help and Review
- GED - Endocrine, Immune & Nervous Systems: Help & Review
- GED Science - Health Issues and Concerns: Help and Review
- GED Science - Nutrition & Physical Activity: Help and Review
- GED Science - Ecology: Help and Review
- GED Science - Animal Behavior: Help and Review
- GED Science - Genetic Engineering Basics: Help and Review
- GED Science - Earth Science and Geology: Help and Review
- GED Science - Earth's Spheres and Internal Structure: Help and Review
- GED Science - Minerals and Rocks: Help and Review
- GED Science - Plate Tectonics & Continental Drift: Help and Review
- GED Science - Oceanography: Help and Review
- GED Science - Meteorology: Help and Review
- GED Science - Weather and Storms: Help and Review
- GED Science - The Atmosphere: Help and Review
- GED Science - Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis: Help and Review