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Genetics and Principles of Heredity - Chapter Summary
Study.com experts have prepared these lessons to enhance your knowledge and understanding about genetics and principles of heredity. Look at the law of segregation, how to apply Mendel's Second Law, codominance and incomplete dominance as exceptions to simple dominance, epistasis, model organisms and human genetics, and examples of polygenic traits. Let us help you understand topics like:
- Genetics overview
- Alleles' properties
- Mendel's First Law in application
- The law of independent assortment
- Sex linked and sex limited traits as exceptions to independent assortment
- Chromosomal linkage
- Chi-square Test
These are short, focused text and video lessons. There is a self-assessment quiz you can take after each lesson. Also, you can submit a question directly to the instructor.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Application of Mendel's First Law
Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
6. Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio
Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!
7. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
8. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
9. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
10. Polygenic Traits: Definition & Examples
If variety is the spice of life, polygenic inheritance is one genetic mechanism giving us a continuous range of possibilities. In this lesson, learn how a polygenic trait, like height, can be controlled by multiple genes.
11. Epistasis: Definition & Examples
Labradors come in three different colors due to two different genes. In this lesson, find out how epistasis works as one phenotype is controlled by the products from two or more genes.
12. Pleiotropy: Definition & Examples
There are many different mutations that occur during growth in organisms. Many times, these mutations can be passed on and will occur in such a way as to be beneficial to the organism. Sometimes, they are not. We will be looking at one such type of mutation here.
13. The Chi-Square Test
What if you expect one thing, but get another? The chi-square test is a method of statistical analysis that can help us identify if the results from a genetic cross are simply due to chance, or if something else is happening. Learn about the chi-square test in this lesson.
14. Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms
How do we study human genetics when most traits arise from multiple genes? It's certainly more complicated that drawing a simple Punnett square. Never fear, for model organisms are here!
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Other chapters within the Ohio State Test - Biology: Practice & Study Guide course
- Scientific Inquiry & Mathematical Reasoning
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- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Cellular Processes
- How Enzymes Work
- Cellular Genetics
- Basics of Gene Mutations
- DNA Models & Technology
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- The Theory of Evolution
- Population Evolution
- Evolution of Life on Earth
- Natural Selection
- Speciation & Speciation Barriers
- Diversity & Interdependence of Life
- Environmental Ecology
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