About This Chapter
Genetics & DNA - Chapter Summary
In these lessons, you'll learn about genetics and DNA. Subjects covered include dominant versus recessive alleles, gene expression, Mendelian inheritance, and the purpose of messenger RNA. You'll also learn about the opinions of Mendel, Boveri, and Sutton concerning inheritance. By the end of the chapter, you should be ready to:
- Discuss the impact of dominant and recessive alleles on eye color
- Explain the chromosome theory of inheritance,
- Explore how genes and the environment influence behavior and appearance
- Define incomplete dominance and codominance
- Describe the type of information acquired from complementation tests
- Recognize traits of both humans and animals with multiple alleles
- Explain blood type inheritance in humans and the cause of hemophilia
- Discuss DNA replication, DNA fingerprinting, transcription of messenger RNA, and translation of mRNA to protein
Our subject matter experts present the information in these short lessons using plenty of examples to ensure the material is easy to understand. Video timelines let you navigate the learning process and review only the topics you need to review. A brief multiple-choice quiz is available for each lesson to test your knowledge. You can also print the lesson quizzes and use them as worksheets.
1. Dominant vs. Recessive Alleles
Watch this video lesson to learn about Mendelian inheritance. It explains why we have the eye color that we have as well as the reason that some people have certain disorders and others don't.
2. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Segregation and Independent Assortment
Mendel proposed the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment to explain the inheritance behind his pea plant traits. A hundred years later, Boveri and Sutton developed the chromosome theory of inheritance, which stated that chromosomes were responsible for the heredity Mendel observed. Learn about these men and their ideas in this lesson.
3. Gene-Environment Interaction
The following lesson explores how genes and a person's environment influence behavior and outward expression of traits. A short quiz will follow the lesson to check your understanding of this timely topic.
4. Incomplete Dominance: Definition & Example
Dominant/recessive inheritance is a common topic in genetics. Incomplete dominance is a naturally occurring phenomenon that may be present during the expression of this type of inheritance. This article describes incomplete dominance and goes over examples found in nature.
5. Codominance: Definition & Example
There are numerous factors that play a role in determining how an organism will look and act. In this lesson, you will learn about a genetic situation known as codominance.
6. Complementation Tests: Alleles, Crosses & Loci
Don't judge an organism by its phenotype; sometimes, two organisms will have the same phenotype but completely different genotypes. In this lesson, we'll learn how a complementation test can identify if mutations occurred within the same gene or different genes.
7. Multiple Alleles: Definition & Example
This lesson introduces the concept of multiple alleles. It provides the definition of multiple alleles and presents several examples of this type of trait within both human and animal populations.
8. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
9. What Is Hemophilia? - Symptoms, Genetic Cause & Treatment
In this lesson, you'll learn about a group of hereditary bleeding disorders collectively known as hemophilia. You'll learn why afflicted people don't form blood clots and why most hemophiliacs are males.
10. Blood Type Inheritance in Humans
This lesson explains differences among the four blood types in humans: A, B, AB, and O. It also shows how these blood types are passed from parents to children.
11. What Is Gene Expression? - Regulation, Analysis & Definition
What is a gene? How are genes expressed? What does the term gene expression mean? Can we analyze gene expression? These questions will be addressed in this lesson.
12. What is DNA?
In this lesson, we will learn what DNA is, what its characteristics and functions are, even where it is located and what information it contains. We'll also learn how the double helix is created. Find out more.
13. How Does DNA Replicate?
In this lesson, we will learn why DNA replicates as well as how. We'll also learn about the rates of replication and how DNA proofreads itself. After watching the lesson, you can complete a short quiz to test your knowledge.
14. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
15. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
16. What is DNA Fingerprinting? - Process & Uses
DNA fingerprinting is a very useful technique that has applications beyond criminal and forensic analysis. In this lesson, you'll learn what DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, and different ways it can be used to determine identity.
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