About This Chapter
Genetics & Heredity - Chapter Summary
Refresh your memory of genetic and hereditary concepts with this engaging and convenient study resource. The expert instructors in this chapter will walk you through the study of genetics and heredity by examining the genome, pedigree analysis, human reproductive systems, genetic mutations and more. You'll study examples of genotypes and understand how DNA is affected by insertions and deletions. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain the genome
- Summarize the study of genetics
- Recognize examples of genotypes
- Identify inheritance patterns in a pedigree analysis
- Understand how the male reproductive system produces sperm and the female reproductive system produces eggs
- Know how point mutations, insertions and deletions affect DNA
- Describe the effects of mutation on protein function
- Assess the environment's effect on mutation rates
- Define the effects of frameshift mutations
This comprehensive chapter helps you quickly and efficiently review essential genetics and heredity topics. Each lesson offers concise definitions and memorable examples to help you retain the information. To supplement your study, we've included printable lesson transcripts and interactive self-assessment quizzes. Available 24/7, this chapter simplifies the studying process and allows you to review these topics at anytime that fits your schedule, whether it's at home, at work or on-the-go.
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
3. What are Genotypes? - Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about what genotypes are, where they come from and how they play a major role in determining how your body works and what you look like.
4. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics: Inheritance Patterns
So you've learned what a pedigree is and how to read or even create one. Now you're ready to learn how to analyze a pedigree and figure out what kind of inheritance pattern a genetic condition follows!
5. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
6. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
7. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
What are genetic mutations? How do they affect our DNA? This lesson covers the basics of point mutations and provides simple examples of different mutation types.
8. Effects of Mutations on Protein Function: Missense, Nonsense, and Silent Mutations
How does a tiny point mutation change the way a protein works? What are the consequences of base substitutions? In this lesson, we'll use an imaginary creature to explore missense, nonsense and silent mutations.
9. Mutagens: How the Environment Affects Mutation Rates
What causes mutations to occur in living things? How do we avoid mutations? Are mutations always bad? Discover answers to these questions and more in this lesson on mutagens.
10. Effects of Frameshift Mutations: Definitions and Examples
What is a frameshift in genetic translation? How can a frameshift mutation change a protein? In this lesson, learn about the codon reading frame and how frameshift mutations cause serious problems for polypeptide formation.
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