About This Chapter
Genetics & Mutations - Chapter Summary
What are Mendel's laws? What are theories of inheritance and evolution? How do mutations occur? These are some of the questions you can expect to answer when you access the lessons contained in this chapter. You'll find lessons devoted to such topics as traits, heredity, genetics research and linked genes. Learning is made simple with detailed definitions, examples and illustrations to clarify this material. Once your review of this chapter is complete, you should be able to:
- Relate details about genetics and how it works
- Define monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
- Discuss codominance and incomplete dominance
- Describe the chromosome theory of inheritance and theory of evolution
- Provide examples of linked genes
- Point out details about the sex chromosome, X-inactivation and Barr bodies
- Detail information about Neurospora genetics research
- List evidence for evolution
Lessons are presented by our expert instructors, and each one typically takes less than 10 minutes to review. Easy accessibility 24/7 from any device allows you to fit studies into your busy schedule, and you can even opt to print lesson transcripts to create handy reference tools. Self-assessment quizzes provide a quick way you can ensure your full understanding of each topic as you move through this chapter.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Monohybrid Cross: Definition & Example
Some genetic characteristics are inherited in predictable patterns. In this lesson you will learn what monohybrids are and how to predict the kinds of characteristics that their offspring will show.
3. Dihybrid Cross: Definition & Example
In this lesson, learn what a dihybrid cross is and see an example. Also, find out about phenotypic ratio and how it's the same for each dihybrid cross. After the lesson, test your knowledge with a quiz.
4. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
6. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
7. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Segregation and Independent Assortment
Mendel proposed the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment to explain the inheritance behind his pea plant traits. A hundred years later, Boveri and Sutton developed the chromosome theory of inheritance, which stated that chromosomes were responsible for the heredity Mendel observed. Learn about these men and their ideas in this lesson.
8. Linked Genes: Definition & Examples
Gene linkage is one of those things that can turn even the simplest genetic question into a complex mess. This lesson will teach you what a linked gene is and take you through some solid examples.
9. Sex-Linked Traits on the X and Y Chromosomes
The sex chromosome you inherit from your parents determines whether you are male or female. But many genes are carried on these chromosomes as well, and the inheritance of this genetic information works a bit differently.
10. Sex Determination, X-Inactivation, and Barr Bodies
Sex determination, X-inactivation and Barr bodies are complex chromosomal processes. Learn more about each of these processes and test your knowledge with a quiz.
11. Neurospora Genetics Research: Definition & Characteristics
Many different organisms have been used in genetics research. We are going to discuss the use of Neurospora in genetics research and why they are a good model organism.
12. Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin
We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.
13. Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology
There is much support for the theory of evolution. This evidence comes from a variety of scientific fields and provides information that helps us trace changes in species over time. In this lesson, we'll look at this evidence and explore how it supports the theory of evolution.
14. Mutations: When DNA Is Copied Wrong
In this lesson, we will learn how mutations, or errors in DNA, come about, what kinds of effects they may have, and how they can impact populations as a whole.
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