About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering college biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn college biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding Mendel's first and second laws, chromosomal linkage, simple dominance or independent assortment
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about genetics
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Genetics - Principles of Heredity chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Genetics - Principles of Heredity chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any genetics question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll find answers to questions including?
- What are the properties of alleles?
- How does Mendel's first law explain chromosome segregation?
- How does Mendel's second law explain independent assortment?
- What are the exceptions to simple dominance?
- What are the exceptions to independent assortment?
- How can model organisms help us study human genetics?
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Application of Mendel's First Law
Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
6. Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio
Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!
7. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
8. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
9. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
10. Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms
How do we study human genetics when most traits arise from multiple genes? It's certainly more complicated that drawing a simple Punnett square. Never fear, for model organisms are here!
11. Additive Alleles: Definition & Characteristics
This lesson will provide a description and examples of one of the many factors that lead to genetic variation: additive alleles. Following the lesson, there will be a brief quiz so that you can see how well you understood the concepts.
12. How Does the Adiabatic Process Work? - Definition & Examples
In this lesson we will be learning about the adiabatic process. After learning the definition, we will explore examples that help demonstrate how this process occurs in nature.
13. What are Genotypes? - Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about what genotypes are, where they come from and how they play a major role in determining how your body works and what you look like.
14. Genotypic Frequency: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, we will explore what genotype frequency is. We'll examine many important facets of genetic inheritance such as what the term genotype refers to, what a phenotype is, what role alleles play in inheritance and what the variations of genotypes are that result in enabling genotype frequency calculations.
15. Monophyletic Groups: Definition & Examples
This lesson describes monophyletic groups and the characteristics that define monophyletic groups. This lesson details the importance and usefulness of monophyletic groups and how monophyletic groups are visually represented.
16. Multiple Alleles: Definition & Example
This lesson introduces the concept of multiple alleles. It provides the definition of multiple alleles and presents several examples of this type of trait within both human and animal populations.
17. Random Assortment of Chromosomes: Definition & Explanation
Random assortment of chromosomes is one of the reasons why some siblings look alike and others look so different from each other. Read about the what, why and how of this key, yet arbitrary, mechanism contributing to genetic variation.
18. Simple Dominance: Definition & Concept
Discover the meaning of simple dominance and learn how different variations of a gene influence the traits we see. Find out whether simple dominance is expressed in humans.
19. What is Gene Therapy? - Definition, History Pros, Cons & Examples
Learn how gene therapy is used to treat disease, the history of the treatment and its trials, as well as the pros and cons associated with this controversial new technique.
20. What Is Assortative Mating?
Assortative mating is a scientific term that describes how some animals choose reproductive partners in a non-random way. This lesson defines this mating pattern and gives some examples.
21. Y Chromosome: Definition, Disorders & Structure
The Y chromosome is found in males and is one of two chromosomes that determine gender. This article focuses on the Y chromosome, the genes it contains, and disorders that are related to this structure in men.
22. Genetic Engineering & Insulin Production
This lesson provides an introduction to genetic engineering, including its definition, the tools it requires, and the types of products it can be used to create. This lesson focuses on one of its most common products - insulin.
23. Genetic Linkage: Definition & Analysis
Genetic linkage is a key principle in understanding the inheritance of traits. Why do some characteristics always seem to occur together? Dive into this lesson to see exactly what it means for genes to be linked.
24. Genetic Linkage: Problems, Mapping & Studies
In this lesson, we'll discuss what happens when genes don't assort randomly. We'll then discuss how to calculate this non-randomness. It's easier than you might think!
25. Gregor Mendel: Biography, Facts & Timeline
Have you ever wondered how you ended up with eyes like your mother and a nose like your father? Gregor Mendel wondered about inherited traits too over a century ago. In this lesson, you will learn about Gregor Mendel and the important contributions he made to the field of genetics.
26. Heritability Coefficient
Heritability is a measure of how much of the variation you see in a certain trait can be attributed to genetic variation. In this lesson, we will discuss what heritability means and how it is calculated.
27. Heritability of Intelligence
If you are intelligent and have children with someone who is intelligent, will your kids be smart? In this lesson, we will examine the aspects of intelligence that seem to be passed down through the generations, as well as how life experiences play a part.
28. Heritable Characteristics & Diseases
Have you ever wondered how traits are passed on from one generation to the next? In this lesson we will discuss this process, as well as some specific traits and diseases that can be passed from parent to offspring.
29. Holandric Genes: Traits & Inheritance
Have you even wondered why only men have hairy ears or certain forms of color blindness? In this lesson you will learn about holandric genes on the Y chromosome and how they are passed from one generation to the next.
30. Mendelian & Non-Mendelian Traits in Humans: Definition & List
Mendelian traits are physical characteristics passed down from parents based on dominant and recessive alleles. This lesson will go into more detail about what Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits are and how they are passed down through generations with examples of each.
31. The Differences Between Primary & Secondary Succession
In this lesson you will learn about the differences between primary and secondary succession. You will also discover how and why each process occurs as well as their importance to the survival of a habitat.
32. Recessive Epistasis: Definition, Examples & Causes
In this lesson, we will discuss how genetics gets a lot messier than what you may have seen in high school biology. One type of this messiness comes from epistatic genes. What do epistatic genes have to do with Labrador retriever puppies?
33. Specific vs. Non-Specific Immunity
This lesson is on specific and non-specific immunity. Here, we'll go over what your immune system is and what it does. We will also explain the two parts of the immune system, specific and non-specific.
34. Difference Between Genes & Alleles
Genes are passed from parent to child. Each parent provides one variation of the gene, called an allele, to the child. This lesson will discuss how genetic information is inherited and how it is expressed.
35. Heterochromia: Definition & Causes
Have you ever seen a dog or cat with two differently colored eyes? This is called heterochromia. Read this lesson to learn more about this fascinating condition and how heterochromia happens!
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the College Biology: Help and Review course
- Science Basics: Help and Review
- Review of Inorganic Chemistry For Biologists: Help and Review
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA: Help and Review
- Enzymatic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- Cell Biology: Help and Review
- DNA Replication - Processes and Steps: Help and Review
- The Transcription and Translation Process: Help and Review
- Genetic Mutations: Help and Review
- Metabolic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- Cell Division: Help and Review
- Plant Biology: Help and Review
- Plant Reproduction and Growth: Help and Review
- Physiology I - The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems: Help and Review
- Physiology II - The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems: Help and Review
- Animal Reproduction and Development: Help and Review
- Principles of Ecology: Help and Review
- Principles of Evolution: Help and Review
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth: Help and Review
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms: Help and Review
- Social Biology: Help and Review
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques: Help and Review
- Analyzing Scientific Data: Help and Review