About This Chapter
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- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
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- Verify you're ready by completing the Geological Science chapter exam.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How do ground and surface waters affect landscapes?
- What is Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift?
- How do glaciers form?
- What is the theory of plate tectonics?
- How do earthquakes and volcanoes occur?
- How do igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks differ?
- What are the primary properties of minerals?
- What are some approaches to soil conservation?
1. Ground and Surface Water: Effects On Landscapes
In this lesson, you will learn how groundwater and surface water form features on Earth and cause changes in landscapes. You will also learn about the different types of features formed by each type of water.
2. What Are Glaciers? - Definition, Types & Processes
Learn about the two major types of glaciers: continental and alpine glaciers. These glaciers shape the landscape around them and affect our everyday lives, even if the nearest glacier is thousands of miles away.
3. How a Landform Diagram Describes the Geological Progression of a Landscape
This lesson describes what a landform diagram is. We'll also discuss some basic laws of geology that can help scientists deduce both the order of events that create a landform and the geologic events that occur after a landform's formation.
4. Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Evidence of Earth's Inner Layers
The interior layers of the earth are not able to be observed directly, so scientists need to rely on other information to learn about it. S waves, P waves, and magma from volcanoes and earthquakes give a glimpse at the layers of the earth by providing data that can be built into a model of the earth.
5. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
In this lesson, we will discuss the three main types of rocks and how they are formed. The lesson also gives an introduction into how matter locked in rocks can be cycled through the earth.
6. Alfred Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift
People used to think that Earth was static, and that it never changed. Gradually, a body of evidence was gathered that made no sense in this model. Alfred Wegener, Geologic Supersleuth, laid the groundwork for a whole new theory for the large-scale changing nature of the earth.
7. Evidence for the Mechanism of Continental Drift
As scientists began to explore the ocean floor after World War II, they discovered many new clues to help them solve a mystery that had begun decades earlier - how the continents moved about on the surface of the earth.
8. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
After many years of trying to solve the mystery of the moving continents, enough data and evidence was collected to develop a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. It's called plate tectonics.
9. Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement
In this lesson, we explore the causes of plate movement, including thermal convection, ridge push and slab pull. Students will learn how these processes complement each other and form a theory for tectonic plate movement.
10. Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, and Transform Boundaries
In the theory of plate tectonics, the earth's crust is broken into plates that move around relative to each other. As a result of this movement, three types of plate boundaries are formed: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries.
11. What Are Minerals? - Types, Properties & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about minerals and their properties. You will also understand the importance and everyday use of different types of minerals found on Earth.
12. Mineral Consumption: How Developed and Developing Nations Consume Minerals Differently
In this lesson, you will learn about how minerals are used around the world. You will also gain an understanding of where minerals are found on earth and how developed and developing nations consume them differently.
13. Extraction and Processing of Minerals & the Environmental Impacts of Mineral Use
In this lesson, you will learn about the different methods used to extract minerals from the ground and gain an understanding about how different types of mining affect the environment.
14. The Formation and Composition of Soil: Definition and Factors
In this video lesson you will learn how soil is formed and what it is made of. You will also learn about how soil is classified and distributed in layers underground.
15. Soil Conservation: Fighting Soil Erosion With Sustainable Soil Use
In this lesson, you will learn about the causes of soil erosion and the impacts it has on plants and other resources. You will also learn about how erosion is prevented through land use and land monitoring.
16. Floodplain: Definition, Development & Features
Floodplains can be a small part of the landscape or a gigantic feature. Here, you will learn what floodplains are, how they are formed, why they are important and where you can find some major floodplains in the world.
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Other chapters within the Introduction to Environmental Science: Help and Review course
- Environmental Science Basics: Help and Review
- Ecosystems: Help and Review
- Interaction Among Organisms in the Ecosystem: Help and Review
- Evolving Ecosystems: Help and Review
- Atmospheric Science and the Environment: Help and Review
- Biological Science: Help and Review
- Pollution of Freshwater Resources: Help and Review
- Bioremediation: Help and Review
- Land Resources: Help and Review
- Population and the Environment: Help and Review
- Food and Agricultural Resources: Help and Review
- Solid and Hazardous Waste: Help and Review
- Human Impact on the Environment: Help and Review
- Renewable Resources: Help and Review
- Nonrenewable Resources: Help and Review
- Environmental Sustainability: Help and Review
- Environmental Risk Analysis: Help and Review
- Ethical and Political Processes of the Environment: Help and Review