About This Chapter
How it works:
- Identify the lessons in Glencoe Biology's Molecular Genetics chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the molecular genetics topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, re-watch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- DNA's double helix structure
- Models of DNA replication
- Roles of helicase in DNA replication
- Roles of DNA polymerase and RNA primase
- DNA's leading and lagging strands
- Protein synthesis in the cell
- Transcription of DNA to mRNA
- RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell
- Translation of mRNA to protein
- Transcriptional repression and induction
- Point mutations, insertions and deletions
- Classes of chemical mutagens
- Mutations caused by irradiation
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1. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
2. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
3. How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication
How does semi-conservative replication begin? Discover how DNA helicase creates a replication fork to unwind the complicated DNA molecule and allow daughter strands to form on the parental template.
4. How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication
How do enzymes assist in starting DNA replication? In this lesson, we explore the work of a contributing enzyme, DNA polymerase, and learn how the RNA primer is made by the action of RNA primase.
5. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities
How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.
6. DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands
Feeling lost in the thorny details of DNA replication? This lesson provides an overview of semi-conservative replication, with a focus on putting together all of the concepts involved. We'll review the work of each enzyme on our way to completing the big picture of DNA replication.
7. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
8. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
9. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
11. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
12. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
13. What is a Point Mutation? - Definition, Causes & Types
What are genetic mutations? How do they affect our DNA? This lesson covers the basics of point mutations and provides simple examples of different mutation types.
14. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Mutagens
Mutations, or changes in DNA sequences, are incredibly important in biology, from evolution and diversity to cancer and genetic diseases. But how do mutations happen? In this lesson, you'll learn about mutagens, which are chemicals that can cause mutations.
15. Causes of Mutation and DNA Damage- Irradiation
By now, you know what mutations are and what effects they can cause, but how do mutations happen? In this lesson, learn about one important cause of mutations, irradiation.
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Other chapters within the Glencoe Biology: Online Textbook Help course
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 1: The Study of Life
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 3: Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 4: Population Ecology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 5: Biodiversity and Conservation
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 6: Chemistry in Biology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 7: Cellular Structure and Function
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 8: Cellular Energy
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 9: Cellular Reproduction
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 10: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 11: Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 13: Genetics and Biotechnology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 14: The History of Life
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 15: Evolution
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 16: Primate Evolution
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 17: Organizing Life's Diversity
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 18: Bacteria and Viruses
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 19: Protists
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 20: Fungi
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 21: Introduction to Plants
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 22: Plant Structure and Function
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 23: Reproduction in Plants
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 24: Introduction to Animals
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 25: Worms and Mollusks
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 26: Arthropods
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 27: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 28: Fishes and Amphibians
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 31: Animal Behavior
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 32: Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 33: Nervous System
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 34: Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 35: Digestive and Endocrine Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 36: Human Reproduction and Development
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 37: The Immune System