About This Chapter
How it works:
- Identify the lessons in Glencoe Biology's Digestive and Endocrine Systems chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the digestive and endocrine system topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, re-watch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- Anatomy of the mouth and its role in digestion
- Throat and esophagus anatomy
- Autonomic nervous system controls and the stomach
- Functions of the small intestine
- Enzymes produced by the pancreas
- Functions of the gall bladder and liver
- Large intestine anatomy and physiology
- Sources of calories and calorie counting methods
- Function and importance of carbohydrates
- Nutritional roles of lipids
- Functions of protein
- Sources and functions of minerals
- Sources and functions of vitamins
- Pituitary gland structures and functions
- Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
- Roles of the parathyroid gland
- Hormones secreted by the pancreas
- Functions and structure of the adrenal glands
- Hormones of the testes and ovaries
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1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth
The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.
2. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus
After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.
3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls
In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.
4. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.
5. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion
Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
6. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion
Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.
7. Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine
The large intestine is the made up of the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal. In this lesson, you will learn about the anatomical features and basic functions of these large intestine segments.
8. Calories: Definition, Purpose & Total Count
A calorie is a unit of measurement used to express energy. There are three nutrients that provide the body with calories: carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Learn about these macronutrients and recommendations for total energy intake: EER and AMDRs.
9. The Importance of Carbohydrates: Functions & Impact of Deficiency
The main function of carbohydrates is to provide the body and brain with energy. An adequate intake of carbs also spares proteins and helps with fat metabolism. Learn about the roles carbohydrates play and what happens when you don't get enough of them.
10. Lipids: Types & Nutritional Role
There are different types of lipids, and each one plays a role in your health. Learn how triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids differ in their chemical structure and the jobs they do within your body.
11. Primary Functions of Protein in the Body
Protein is a vital molecule that carries out many functions in your body. Learn how proteins provide structure, regulate body processes, transport materials throughout your body, help your immune system and act as a source of energy.
12. Minerals in Our Food: Functions in the Body & Food Sources
Minerals are important substances that help your body's form and function on many different levels. This lesson will go over some important ones, what they do, and where they are found in our diets.
13. Vitamins We Need: Their Importance & Sources
There are a lot of different vitamins, and they come from many different places! This lesson will teach you about what they are, how many different kinds you need, what they do, and where you can obtain them naturally.
14. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
15. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus
In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.
16. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH
Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.
17. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH
The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.
18. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production
The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.
19. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla
The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.
20. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features
The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.
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Other chapters within the Glencoe Biology: Online Textbook Help course
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 1: The Study of Life
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 3: Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 4: Population Ecology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 5: Biodiversity and Conservation
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 6: Chemistry in Biology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 7: Cellular Structure and Function
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 8: Cellular Energy
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 9: Cellular Reproduction
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 10: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 11: Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 12: Molecular Genetics
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 13: Genetics and Biotechnology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 14: The History of Life
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 15: Evolution
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 16: Primate Evolution
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 17: Organizing Life's Diversity
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 18: Bacteria and Viruses
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 19: Protists
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 20: Fungi
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 21: Introduction to Plants
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 22: Plant Structure and Function
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 23: Reproduction in Plants
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 24: Introduction to Animals
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 25: Worms and Mollusks
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 26: Arthropods
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 27: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 28: Fishes and Amphibians
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 31: Animal Behavior
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 32: Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 33: Nervous System
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 34: Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 36: Human Reproduction and Development
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 37: The Immune System