About This Chapter
How it works:
- Identify the lessons in Glencoe Biology's Chemistry in Biology chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the biochemistry topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, re-watch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- Atomic structure
- Ionic and covalent bonds
- Synthesis and decomposition reactions
- Chemical equations
- Activation energy, activated complex and catalysts
- Enzyme functions
- Water properties
- Solutes and solvents
- Acids and bases
- The pH scale
- Carbohydrate function
- Structure of lipids
- Protein structure and function
- DNA's chemical structure
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1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
3. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
4. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
5. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements
Did you know that elements are like people and have different personalities? A few elements are very shy and love to be left alone. Others are very social and prefer to hang out with friends. In this lesson we will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds.
6. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition
Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.
7. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
8. Basic Properties of Chemical Reactions
Learn how about the various components of a chemical reaction, and how those components function. Use this lesson to understand the basic properties of different kinds of chemical reactions.
9. Activation Energy and Catalysts
Learn how to define activation energy and how it relates to a reaction's energy. Learn what an activated complex is and where it fits into an activation energy diagram. Discover how a catalyst works to change the activation energy of a reaction and what this means to metabolism in the body.
10. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
11. Properties of Water
Why does ice float? Why can water rise on its own against gravity in a small tube? Find out how these mysterious properties of water can be explained by hydrogen bonds.
12. Solutions, Solutes, and Solvents
Oh no! Your friend Ben just drank chili oil on a dare, and now his mouth is burning. Should he drink the ice water or vegetable oil to cool his mouth? Quick. Watch this lesson if you aren't sure.
13. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
14. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
15. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
16. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
17. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
18. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
19. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
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Other chapters within the Glencoe Biology: Online Textbook Help course
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 1: The Study of Life
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 3: Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 4: Population Ecology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 5: Biodiversity and Conservation
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 7: Cellular Structure and Function
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 8: Cellular Energy
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 9: Cellular Reproduction
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 10: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 11: Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 12: Molecular Genetics
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 13: Genetics and Biotechnology
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 14: The History of Life
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 15: Evolution
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 16: Primate Evolution
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 17: Organizing Life's Diversity
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 18: Bacteria and Viruses
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 19: Protists
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 20: Fungi
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 21: Introduction to Plants
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 22: Plant Structure and Function
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 23: Reproduction in Plants
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 24: Introduction to Animals
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 25: Worms and Mollusks
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 26: Arthropods
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 27: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 28: Fishes and Amphibians
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 31: Animal Behavior
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 32: Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 33: Nervous System
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 34: Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 35: Digestive and Endocrine Systems
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 36: Human Reproduction and Development
- Glencoe Biology Chapter 37: The Immune System