About This Chapter
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What are the different types of nouns and pronouns?
- How do action, auxiliary and linking verbs work?
- What is the difference between adjectives and adverbs?
- Why are conjunctions important?
- How can you identify the subject of a sentence?
- What key elements are found in parallel sentences?
- How can you avoid run-on sentences or sentence fragments?
- What are the basic rules of punctuation?
- What's the best way to achieve subject-verb agreement?
- How do dangling and misplaced modifiers affect sentence strucrure?
1. What Are Nouns? - Definition, Types & Examples
A noun is a part of a sentence that identifies the places, things, ideas, people, events, and other objects. Learn about the definition of nouns, understand the two types of nouns, and explore how to use nouns in sentences.
2. What Are Pronouns? - Types, Examples & Definition
A pronoun is a part of speech that is used in place of a noun or a noun phrase. Learn about the definition, types, and examples of pronouns, discover the two categories of personal pronouns -- the subjective case and objective case pronouns, and explore pronouns in compounds and pronouns in comparisons.
3. What Are Personal Pronouns?
Personal pronouns are words used to replace the subject or object of a sentence in order to make it easier for readers to follow. Discover what are personal pronouns, explore the difference between personal and object pronouns, see why pronoun agreement is important and what to do when the subjects' gender is ambiguous, and see which pronouns people often use in certain contexts and what does that say about them.
4. Action, Linking and Auxiliary Verbs: Definitions, Functions & Examples
A verb is a word that is used to describe action or occurrence. Explore the definitions and functions of the three types of verbs (action, linking, and auxiliary) through examples.
5. Comparison of Adjectives & Adverbs: Examples, Sentences & Exercises
Generally speaking, adjectives are words that describe nouns, and adverbs are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Dive deeper into examples of adjectives and adverbs, comparatives and superlatives, rules for using them in sentences, and exercises and examples of their respective uses.
6. Conjunctions: Coordinating & Correlative
Conjunctions are parts of speech that join together other words, phrases and clauses in sentences. Learn all about two types of conjunctions - coordinating and correlative - in this lesson.
7. How to Identify the Subject of a Sentence
The subject is the main character of a sentence, while the verb is the action he/she is taking or the state he/she is in. Learn how to identify the subject and verb of a sentence, even in sentences with multiple subjects and verbs or written in passive voice, explore the different types of subjects, including simple subjects, complete subjects, compound subjects, and implied subjects, and check how to use pronouns.
8. Parallelism: How to Write and Identify Parallel Sentences
A parallel structure can make sentences, whether they are comparisons, lists, or conjunctions, sound better as each sentence maintains a consistent structure throughout. Learn about parallelism and how to write and identify parallel sentences.
9. Independent & Dependent Clauses: Subordination & Coordination
The independent clause, the simplest type of sentence, can be joined with dependent clauses or other independent clauses to add greater context. Explore dependent and independent clauses and how to use subordinating and coordinating conjunctions.
10. Sentence Fragments, Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences
Well-written documents are free of problems like fragmented sentences, comma splices, and run-on sentences. Learn about these grammatical issues, understand why they detract from the quality of written work, and explore ways to write documents that are grammatically correct.
11. Commas: Correct Usage & Basic Rules
Well-written documents include well placed commas, but the correct usage of commas can be challenging. Understand the importance of commas and learn the basic rules for using commas to separate the elements of a series, separate adjectives, pause after an introduction, and separate text that includes quotation marks.
12. Comma Usage: Avoid Confusion in Clauses & Contrasting Sentence Parts
Commas are an important tool used to create well-written documents but can create confusion in clauses and contrasting sentence parts when used incorrectly. Learn about commas and explore ways to use them correctly and avoid confusion.
13. Punctuation: Using Colons, Semicolons & Periods
Periods, colons, and semicolons all have the ability to stop a sentence in its tracks, but for very different purposes. Learn how and why different punctuation signs are utilized in writing, including periods, colons, and semicolons, and discover how they help people make lists and connect words, phrases, and clauses.
14. Verb Tense & Subject-Verb Agreement
When a document includes incorrect verb tenses and/or subject-verb agreements, it reads poorly. Learn about these grammatical problems and explore ways to create written documents with proper verb tenses and subject-verb agreements.
15. Subject-Verb Agreement: Using Uncommon Singular and Plural Nouns and Pronouns
Subject-verb agreement is when plural verbs are used with plural nouns and pronouns, and singular verbs are used with singular nouns and pronouns. Learn about uncommon group and singular nouns, indefinite pronouns, and how to use proper subject-verb agreement for grammatically correct writing.
16. What Are Misplaced Modifiers and Dangling Modifiers?
Modifiers modify and describe words and clauses, but if used incorrectly, they can modify the wrong words and clauses or nothing at all. Learn about misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers and how to correct them.
17. Sentence Agreement: Avoiding Faulty Collective Ownership
An improperly written sentence may imply multiple people own a single thing when they each own separate things. Learn how to maintain sentence agreement by identifying, correcting, and avoiding faulty collective ownership.
18. Phrasal Verbs: Definition & Examples
A verb that is combined with another word, usually a preposition, is called a phrasal verb. Learn about the definition, uses, types, and examples of phrasal verbs.
19. Commonly Misspelled Words
Spelling is a challenge, especially when it comes to these commonly misspelled words. Using the list below, you can make your own flashcards to help you spell them correctly on assignments and exams.
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Other chapters within the AP English Literature: Help and Review course
- AP English - Literary Analysis Intro: Help and Review
- AP English - Interpreting Literature: Help and Review
- Influences on the English Language
- Rhetorical Devices in AP English: Help and Review
- Genres in Literature
- Types of Fiction
- Types of Nonfiction
- Analytical Writing Strategies
- Strategies for Reading Technical & Functional Texts
- AP English - Prose: Help and Review
- AP English - Types of Poetry: Help and Review
- Literature in Old English & Middle English
- Literature of the English Renaissance
- Romantic Prose in British Literature
- English Literature in the 17th & 18th Century
- The Romantic Poetry Movement in English Literature
- Literature of the Turn of the Century
- Modernist Authors in English Literature
- Nonfiction Selections in English Literature
- The Oral Tradition
- Literary Movements & Genres
- AP English - American Literary Periods and Movements: Help and Review
- AP English - Examples of American Literary Analysis: Help and Review
- AP English - English Literary Periods and Movements: Help and Review
- AP English - Examples of English Literary Analysis: Help and Review
- AP English - Essay Basics - Types of Essay: Help and Review
- Essay Writing Conventions for AP English: Help & Review
- Beginning the Writing Process in AP English: Help and Review
- Writing & Structuring an Essay in AP English: Help and Review
- Writing Revision and Skill Development in AP English: Help and Review
- Reading Comprehension for Test-Taking
- About the AP English Literature Test