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Ch 24: GRE Biology: Animal Reproduction & Development

About This Chapter

View video lessons about animal reproduction and development. These lessons and self-assessment quizzes help ensure your readiness for the GRE Biology test.

GRE Biology: Animal Reproduction & Development - Chapter Summary

Learn about animal reproduction and development by watching the short and interesting video lessons in this chapter. These lessons are designed to provide you with the necessary information to correctly answer related GRE biology test questions. The lessons in this chapter discuss:

  • Spermatogenesis
  • Oogenesis
  • Embryonic development and embryo implantation
  • Gastrulation and the 3 germ layers
  • Signaling molecules
  • The structure and function of the placenta
  • Use of fate mapping to track cell development

Our subject matter experts have developed lessons to guide you through complicated material by breaking down concepts into short, easy-to-understand sections. Watch the video lessons as often as you like to help you understand the content. At the end of this chapter, take an exam to be sure you comprehend the material.

GRE Biology Objectives

The GRE biology test is a subject matter achievement exam that gives graduate school applicants a chance to show their mastery of biology. The biology test is a 190-question, multiple-choice exam organized into three main areas: cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology and ecology and evolution. Animal reproduction and development falls under the organismal biology area and accounts for 6% of all biology test questions. The test uses a paper format and each multiple-choice question has five answer options to choose from.

14 Lessons in Chapter 24: GRE Biology: Animal Reproduction & Development
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development

1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development

Sexual reproduction in animals involves many different steps, beginning with gametogenesis and ending with the formation of three primary germ layers. Discover how those initial steps happen, and explore different definitions of the parts of animal reproduction and development.

Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm

2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm

Spermatogenesis is a process that takes place in the seminiferous tubules where sperm, or male gametes, are formed. Discover other processes and concepts about the production of sperm in the male reproductive system.

Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs

3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs

Oogenesis is a process that takes place in the ovaries where female gametes or ova are formed. Learn more about oogenesis and other processes in the female reproductive system's production of eggs, such as meiosis, ovulation, and fertilization.

Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula

4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula

Following fertilization, the early stages of mammalian development--including cleavage, morula formation and blastula formation--are unique to mammalian embryos. Learn about key processes in each stage of development and how they differ from those in non-mammalian development.

Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation

5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation

All mammals begin as fertilized embryos. Learn what happens to a mammalian embryo when it is fertilized, understand how implantation occurs, and explore how the placenta forms.

The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function

6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function

Babies must eat but also discharge wastes into the mother's blood, for which the placenta can be considered the interface. Explore the structure and function of the placenta and how it facilitates the transfer of nutrients and waste products between mother and baby.

Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac

7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac

Living organisms need a support system as they grow from an embryo into a newborn. Learn how amniotic fluid, the amnion, yolk sac, chorion, and allantois function in placental mammals and egg-laying vertebrates to nourish and protect the unborn as they develop.

Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)

8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)

Gastrulation is a process that creates three different germ layers in an early embryo called ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Learn what this process is and discover how it occurs in the gastrulation of frogs and mammals.

Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate

9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate

Spemann's organizer is a small group of cells in the human body that controls cell fate and determines how an embryo develops. Learn about embryo experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux, Hans Driesch, and Hans Spemann and the three major body axes.

Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development

10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development

A developing embryo has a complex regulatory system. Learn about Spemann's organizer, which is the source of a number of different proteins, learn about other parts of the embryo development process, including concentration gradients, and explore the complexity of the differentiation process.

How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation

11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation

During the early stages of the maturity of an embryo, each cell undergoes a process called differentiation, which determines the function and specific type of the cell. Learn about the process of differentiation, the different types and functions of signaling molecules, and how these signaling molecules control the differentiation of cells.

How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development

12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development

Fate mapping is the process of tracking cells using dyes to monitor how they grow and develop as an organism matures. Learn about fate mapping processes developed by an embryologist in 1929 for mammals and non-mammal, and discover how advances in science and technology and even dyes have improved fate mapping.

Animal Behavior: Innate vs. Learned

13. Animal Behavior: Innate vs. Learned

Animal behavior can be defined as being both innate and instinctive from birth like a bird building a nest or something learned through experience, such as a puppy who has been taught to poop outside. Learn about some of the complexities of animal behavior and explore examples illustrating the differences between innate and learned behaviors.

How Animals Communicate: Chemical, Visual & Electrical Signals

14. How Animals Communicate: Chemical, Visual & Electrical Signals

Learn how animals communicate with chemical, visual, and electrical signals. Understand the importance of visual, auditory, chemical, and electric signals when it comes to effective communication amongst animals.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
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