About This Chapter
GRE Biology: Bacterial Biology - Chapter Summary
Study bacterial cell structures and their functions as well as the methods by which bacteria reproduce and generate energy. The short instructional videos in this chapter can help you prepare for GRE Biology questions on the following topics:
- Bacterial cell morphology
- Cell membranes and cytoplasms
- Exterior cell structures
- Bacterial endospores
- The bacterial genome
- Bacterial plasmids
- Reproduction of bacteria
- Transformation and transduction
- Bacterial metabolism
- Fermentation of bacteria
- Characteristics of E. coli
This chapter's self-paced video lessons are taught by experienced instructors who discuss topics covered on the actual exam. Multiple-choice quizzes that chart your progress and transcripts with highlighted key terms are also available to help you create and carry out your GRE Biology study plan.
GRE Biology Objectives
If you're seeking admission to a graduate program related to the biological sciences, you might consider sitting for the GRE Biology exam. This standardized test includes around 190 multiple-choice questions and is generally taken by prospective students who want to supplement their application materials.
Use the lessons in this chapter to prepare for the roughly 6% of organismal biology questions focusing on the diversity of life. These types of questions require an understanding of bacterial cell morphology and the functions of various bacterial cell structures, among other topics.
1. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements
Do all bacteria look the same? Definitely not! These tiny, singled-celled organisms come in a variety of morphologies, from cocci to spirals to tetrads. Many bacterial names even have clues to their morphology!
2. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components
Some people say a bacterial cell is just a simple bag of enzymes. This couldn't be further from the truth! Learn about the structure and function of the bacterial cell membrane, what's in the cytoplasm, and how membrane surface area impacts bacterial size.
3. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types
The bacterial cell wall has to be strong to prevent cell lysis but also porous to allow transport across the cell membrane. In this lesson, we will examine the structure of the bacterial cell wall and how it accomplishes both of these crucial tasks.
4. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions
A bacterial cell is not smooth like a balloon. Bacteria can be covered with a wide range of structures like pili and capsules that give each species of bacteria different abilities. In this lesson, you will learn about several of these key external structures of bacteria.
5. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation
Some bacteria have the ability to enter a state of suspended animation when conditions are unfavorable. In this lesson, we will examine the bacterial endospore and learn how and why bacteria produce these structures.
6. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization
All organisms have DNA. While the basic structure of DNA is the same, the organization of the DNA in bacterial cells is very different than in human or animal cells. In this lesson we will explore the basics of the bacterial genome.
7. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses
What if you could pick up bits of DNA and change your traits? In the animal kingdom, organisms are born with their lifetime total of DNA. In the bacterial world, cells can add to their genome by acquiring plasmids.
8. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol
You probably didn't know that bacteria can engage in sexual reproduction. It is not what you think. In this lesson we will explore the process of bacterial conjugation and its impact on genetic variability in bacteria.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications
DNA is all around you. So are bacteria. Did you know that those bacteria can pick up and use that DNA? In this lesson we will examine the process of transformation and how bacteria are able to make use of environmental DNA.
10. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages
Genetic diversity allows organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this lesson, we will explore bacterial transduction and how it allows bacteria to transfer genes and increase genetic diversity.
11. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Respiration is the process of converting nutrients into usable energy. Several different mechanisms exist in the bacterial world. In this lesson, we will examine the role of oxygen in bacterial aerobic respiration.
12. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Bacteria are metabolically versatile and can grow in a range of environments. Many bacteria grow in environments without oxygen using anaerobic respiration and fermentation. This lesson will discuss the process of anaerobic respiration in bacteria.
13. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products
Bacteria in anaerobic environments can break down organic compounds using fermentation. If you have ever eaten a fermented food, such as bread, yogurt or cheese, you have tasted the products of fermentation. Now, learn the details of this process.
14. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell
A model organism can help scientists perform faster and more efficient biological research. This lesson examines the most utilized model organism, E. coli, and looks at the major characteristics that make it a perfect model.
15. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs
Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of your gastrointestinal tract. In this lesson we will examine the conditions required for optimal growth of E. coli both in your colon and in culture.
16. Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: Role, Definition & Examples
Bacteria that change nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into solid nitrogen usable by plants are called nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These bacteria are found both in the soil and in symbiotic relationships with plants.
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Other chapters within the GRE Biology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- GRE Biology: History of Life
- GRE Biology: Genetic Variability, Evolutionary Processes and Consequences
- GRE Biology: Inorganic Chemistry Review
- GRE Biology: Organic Chemistry Review
- GRE Biology: Cell Structure & Function
- GRE Biology: Cell Communication
- GRE Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry
- GRE Biology: Enzymatic Biochemistry
- GRE Biology: The Cell Cycle
- GRE Biology: Biology Lab Methods
- GRE Biology: Genetic Foundations
- GRE Biology: Nucleic Acids
- GRE Biology: DNA Replication
- GRE Biology: Genetic Mutations
- GRE Biology: The Transcription & Translation Process
- GRE Biology: Introduction to Viruses
- GRE Biology: Recombinant DNA Methodology
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- GRE Biology: Male Reproductive Structures
- GRE Biology: Female Reproductive Structures
- GRE Biology: Animal Reproduction & Development
- GRE Biology: Plant Structure, Function, and Organization
- GRE Biology: Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development
- GRE Biology: Ecosystems, Biomes, and Habitats
- GRE Biology: Ecological Interactions
- GRE Biology: Ecological Chemical Cycling
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