About This Chapter
GRE Biology: Genetic Foundations - Chapter Summary
Examine the applications of Mendel's laws and the methods used to study human genetics. Our experienced instructors can help you prepare for these types of questions on the GRE Biology exam. Lesson topics include:
- Allele properties
- Mendel's first and second laws
- Codominance and incomplete dominance
- Sex linked and sex limited traits
- Model organisms
- Population genetics
- Pedigree analysis
Each lesson in this chapter includes an entertaining video and a matching transcript, both of which allow you to review genetics material at your own pace. You'll also find a self-assessment quiz useful for determining when you're ready to move on to the next topic.
GRE Biology Objectives
Aspiring graduate students take the GRE Biology exam to demonstrate their expertise in this area. Though test scores aren't necessarily required for admission, they can be used to supplement prospective students' application materials.
Lessons in this chapter are designed to prepare you for the genetics and molecular biology subsection, which includes roughly 16%-17% of the test's 190 multiple-choice questions and covers topics like Mendelian inheritance, pedigree analysis and other genetics topics. These types of questions are a part of the larger cellular and molecular biology content domain, one of three main test areas along with ecology and evolution and organismal biology.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Application of Mendel's First Law
Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
6. Mendel's Dihybrid Cross Example: Practice & Ratio
Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!
7. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
8. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
9. Crossing Over & Gene Linkage: Definition, Importance & Results
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
10. Human Genetics: Multifactorial Traits & Model Organisms
How do we study human genetics when most traits arise from multiple genes? It's certainly more complicated that drawing a simple Punnett square. Never fear, for model organisms are here!
11. Human Genetics Research Methods: Pedigrees and Population Genetics
Have you ever wondered how people study human genetics? Do you know what a pedigree or a complex disease is? In this lesson you'll learn about some of the techniques that human geneticists use and what pedigrees and complex diseases have to do with human genetics.
12. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics: Tutorial
One of the oldest genetic techniques is pedigree analysis, and yet it is still used every day all around the world by doctors, geneticists, and genetic counselors. Building and reading a pedigree is actually fairly easy if you know what the symbols mean. In fact, it's so easy that you can learn how to do it in less than ten minutes if you watch this video!
13. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics: Inheritance Patterns
So you've learned what a pedigree is and how to read or even create one. Now you're ready to learn how to analyze a pedigree and figure out what kind of inheritance pattern a genetic condition follows!
14. What is Heterozygous? - Definition, Traits & Example
We all have two copies of each of our genes. If your two copies are slightly different than each other, congratulations, you're heterozygous! Learn how heterozygosity occurs, and why it can be a good thing to be slightly mismatched.
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