Ch 16: GRE Biology: Introduction to Viruses

About This Chapter

Watch these informative video lessons to refresh your knowledge of viruses. Each lesson includes a quiz to help you gauge your comprehension of the structure, functions and shapes of viruses.

Introduction to Viruses - Chapter Summary

Review the basic concepts of viruses using these brief, engaging video lessons. The video lessons, taught by experts in the field of biology, provide an efficient way to review processes and classifications of viruses as you prepare to take the GRE Biology test. The lessons in this chapter cover:

  • Virus structure
  • Life cycle of a virus
  • DNA and RNA viruses
  • Virus mutation
  • Vaccines

You can watch each lesson as often as needed to be sure you retain all of the material discussed by the instructors. In addition to the videos, we provide transcripts of the lessons to give you an alternative way to review the information. Use the self-assessment quizzes at the end of each lesson to check your knowledge of the topic and get familiar with the style of questions you'll see on the exam.

GRE Biology Objectives

The GRE Biology Test is a subject matter achievement test that prospective graduate students may take to demonstrate their mastery of biology. The test covers the subfields of cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution. Questions about viruses fall under genetics and molecular biology topics, which are part of the cellular and molecular biology subfield. These video lessons cover what you need to know about viruses for the actual test.

The GRE Biology Test consists of 190 multiple-choice questions and is provided in paper format. Genetics and molecular biology questions account for 16% to 17% of the total number of questions on the test.

11 Lessons in Chapter 16: GRE Biology: Introduction to Viruses
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function

1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function

In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.

Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped

2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped

Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.

The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate

3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate

Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.

Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme

4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme

Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.

Replication of DNA Viruses

5. Replication of DNA Viruses

This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.

Replication of RNA Viruses

6. Replication of RNA Viruses

This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.

How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift

7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift

This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!

Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles

8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles

Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.

Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion

9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion

Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.

Antibiotics and Vaccines

10. Antibiotics and Vaccines

Do you know why children must get regularly vaccinated? Have you ever wondered how an antibiotic works and why they are so widely prescribed? If so, this lesson will help you to understand how changes in medicine have almost eliminated several deadly diseases and added decades to the average person's lifespan.

Pathogens: Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence

11. Pathogens: Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence

Find out more about how the overuse of antibiotics could lead to some serious problems with epidemics or untreatable diseases in the future. You can also discover some of the things that make pathogens harmful and why pathogens don't cause disease in every species they infect.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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