About This Chapter
GRE Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry - Chapter Summary
Explore the processes by which living organisms convert food into energy. Listed below are just some of the topics covered in this GRE test-prep chapter:
- Aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration
- Electron carriers in cellular respiration
- Products of the glycolysis pathway
- Steps in the citric acid cycle
- Products of the electron transport chain
- Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
- The light and dark reactions of photosynthesis
Instructors break down these complicated processes over the course of several illustrated videos lasting around six minutes each. Transcripts are also available to help develop your understanding of these metabolic biochemistry topics, as are self-assessment quizzes and a chapter test.
GRE Biology Objectives
The GRE Biology exam is one of a handful of subject tests offered by the Educational Testing Service to prospective graduate students who want to supplement their application materials.
The 190 multiple-choice questions found on the GRE Biology exam are more or less equally divided among three main content domains: cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution. Lessons in this chapter are designed to help you with cellular and molecular biology questions focusing on organisms' major metabolic pathways. To do well on this part of the test, you'll need to be familiar with the regulation of the respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation processes.
1. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Cellular respiration is an important process that enables all living organisms to convert organic compounds into energy. Learn about cellular respiration and understand the roles of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and oxygen to perform energy transfers in cells.
2. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Cellular respiration is an important process that helps organisms produce energy. Learn about the definitions of redox reactions and electron carriers, including NAD and FAD, in cellular respiration, and find an example of the basic formula that describes the process.
3. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration, which is the final step in the process of converting food to chemical energy. Learn more about the steps of the glycolysis pathway and the importance of molecules and other products used in the process.
4. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
The citric acid cycle is the second of a three-part process of cellular respiration. Explore how our bodies progress from the first stage, glycolysis, and through the citric acid cycle before reaching the electron transport chain as food is transformed into energy.
5. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
The third step in the cellular respiration process is called the electron transport chain. Learn about cellular respiration and how the electron transport chain uses the products of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the final steps in the process and convert food into energy.
6. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
The production of lactic acid from cells in the human body is similar to how fermentation produces alcohol from yeast. Learn about the process of aerobic cellular respiration, and compare and contrast the production of lactic acid and the fermentation of alcohol.
7. Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis
In photosynthesis, chlorophyll and other pigments absorb wavelengths from sunlight, which excites the electrons contained in them. Discover the process of how light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll and why it is important for the next steps of photosynthesis.
8. Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products
The process of photosynthesis includes photolysis, the light reactions that use energy from sunlight to split water molecules. Learn about the steps, reactants, and products involved in photolysis and understand how to define this oxygen-producing process.
9. Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
In the beginning of the photosynthesis process, sunlight energy is necessary. But photosynthesis progresses to dark reactions, known as the Calvin-Benson Cycle, to complete the process of sugar production. Learn about the steps in this cycle, including how the process uses carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH to create sugar.
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