About This Chapter
GRE Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry - Chapter Summary
Explore the processes by which living organisms convert food into energy. Listed below are just some of the topics covered in this GRE test-prep chapter:
- Aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration
- Electron carriers in cellular respiration
- Products of the glycolysis pathway
- Steps in the citric acid cycle
- Products of the electron transport chain
- Lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation
- The light and dark reactions of photosynthesis
Instructors break down these complicated processes over the course of several illustrated videos lasting around six minutes each. Transcripts are also available to help develop your understanding of these metabolic biochemistry topics, as are self-assessment quizzes and a chapter test.
GRE Biology Objectives
The GRE Biology exam is one of a handful of subject tests offered by the Educational Testing Service to prospective graduate students who want to supplement their application materials.
The 190 multiple-choice questions found on the GRE Biology exam are more or less equally divided among three main content domains: cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution. Lessons in this chapter are designed to help you with cellular and molecular biology questions focusing on organisms' major metabolic pathways. To do well on this part of the test, you'll need to be familiar with the regulation of the respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation processes.
1. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
2. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
3. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
4. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
5. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
6. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
7. Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis
Plants are clean, green, photosynthesizing machines. Using a specialized pigment called chlorophyll, plants are able to soak up energy from the sun and turn it into food. In this lesson, we'll start to learn why chlorophyll literally gets excited about a sunny day!
8. Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products
In this lesson, we'll learn how electrons get excited during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, jumping off photosystem reaction centers like they were trampolines! In addition, we'll learn how the splitting of water creates reactants for this part of photosynthesis while creating a little fresh air for us.
9. Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
Photosynthesis starts out using the energy from sunlight to get things started, but it ends with the dark reactions, which don't need sunshine to complete sugar production. In the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used to produce sugars.
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Other chapters within the GRE Biology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
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