About This Chapter
GRE Biology: Recombinant DNA Methodology - Chapter Summary
In this series of video lessons, instructors break down all the components of recombinant DNA methodology to make this complex area of biology easy to learn. Lessons in this chapter cover:
- Genetic engineering and DNA plasmids
- Restriction enzymes
- Use of ligase to engineer recombinant DNA
- Agarose gel electrophoresis
- Polymerase chain reactions
- DNA technology applications and ethical concerns
- DNA cloning
Our instructors are experts in their field and provide you with the information you need to prepare for questions about recombinant DNA on the GRE Biology test. You may view each video lesson as many times as you would like and read a transcript of the lesson to ensure you understand the materials presented. Take self-assessment quizzes after each lesson to test your comprehension of the material then link back to key points in each video using the jump feature on the timeline if you need to review a concept.
GRE Biology Objectives
The GRE Biology test is an achievement test offered to graduate students as a means of highlighting their knowledge of biology to admissions committees. The test has 190 multiple-choice questions and is organized into three subareas of biology: cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution. The subareas are further broken down into more specific topics. Questions regarding recombinant DNA methodology fall under the topic of genetics and molecular biology, which accounts for 16% to 17% of all questions on the GRE Biology test.
The GRE Biology test is offered three times per year in September, October and April. It is provided in paper format only.
1. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
2. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering
DNA plasmids play an integral part in most genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn about key features of a plasmid, such as a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.
3. Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition
Restriction enzymes played a critical role in the advent of genetic engineering. In this lesson, you will learn what role restriction enzymes play in creating recombinant DNA.
4. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
DNA ligase makes recombinant DNA technology possible. In this lesson, you will learn how new versions of genes can be designed for experiments in novel host organisms using DNA ligase.
5. What is Agarose Gel Electrophoresis?
Agarose gel electrophoresis plays a key role in genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn what agarose is and how electrophoresis works. You'll also discover the use of agarose in this procedure.
6. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Equipment & Procedure
This lesson will review the concepts and mechanisms of agarose gel electrophoresis. It will also summarize the equipment needed to perform the procedure for DNA analysis.
7. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Results Analysis
Gel electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA restriction digest and ligation experiments. In this lesson, you will learn how to use a DNA ladder to interpret experimental results.
8. PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biotechnology technique that is used to amplify pieces of DNA. In this lesson, you will learn about five ingredients necessary to perform PCR: template DNA, nucleotides, primers, buffer and Taq polymerase.
9. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this lesson, you will learn about the steps required to amplify DNA during PCR. The lesson will explain the role template DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase and PCR buffer play in the denaturation, annealing and extension steps of PCR.
10. DNA Cloning: Definition and Process
DNA cloning is used for a variety of purposes, but how does it work? In this video lesson, you will learn about the process of cloning DNA, as well as see examples of how cloning is used in science, medicine, and consumer products.
11. Genomic DNA Analysis
Your genes are what make you who you are, but they also make you a human. Studying genes and genomes allows scientists to better understand not only our own species, but how we are related to other species in the world as well.
12. Practical Applications of DNA Technology
DNA technology is a field that has many applications for our everyday lives. In this video lesson, you will learn about some of the important contributions of DNA technology to industries such as medicine, agriculture and criminal investigation.
13. Ethical and Safety Concerns for DNA Technology
DNA technology is very powerful and has had positive influences on many fields and industries. However, DNA technology is not perfect. In this lesson, you will explore some of the safety and ethical concerns that people have regarding this field of study.
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Other chapters within the GRE Biology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
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