About This Chapter
GRE Biology: The Cell Cycle - Chapter Summary
Learn all the mitosis and meiosis concepts you'll need to successfully answer GRE Biology questions on the cell cycle. Instructors teaching this chapter's lessons walk you through the following topics:
- Chromosome structure
- Stages in the cell cycle
- Chromosome condensation
- The mitotic spindle
- Chromosome segregation
- Asexual and sexual reproduction
- Stages in meiosis I and II
- Chromosome segregation errors
This chapter includes self-paced video lessons and transcripts you can access as many times as you need to understand each step in the cell cycle. There are also self-checking quizzes useful for tracking your progress through this test-prep course.
GRE Biology Objectives
GRE subject tests are administered three times a year to prospective graduate students. Test scores can be used to supplement applicants' admissions materials and demonstrate academic strength in their field of interest.
The GRE Biology test consists of approximately 190 multiple-choice questions. Between 16% and 17% of them focus on cell structure and function. Use the lessons in this chapter to prepare for those requiring a familiarity with the stages involved in cell growth and division.
1. Basic Genetics: The Genome & Chromosomes
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. How is DNA Organized into Chromosomes? - Structure & Function
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle: Definition, Phases & Sequence
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. How is DNA Packaged? - Chromosome Condensation & Karyograms
Learn how DNA packaging makes it possible to fit approximately seven feet of DNA inside a single cell. You'll see how chromosome condensation helps cells get ready for cell division.
5. Parts of a Chromosome & Their Roles
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
6. Mitotic Spindle: Definition, Formation & Function
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
7. Stages of Mitosis: Description & Sequence
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
8. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
9. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction: Comparison & Characteristics
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
10. Meiosis: Comparison to Mitosis, Crossing Over & Process
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
11. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
12. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
13. Nondisjunction & Aneuploidy: Definition & Examples
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
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Other chapters within the GRE Biology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- GRE Biology: History of Life
- GRE Biology: Genetic Variability, Evolutionary Processes and Consequences
- GRE Biology: Inorganic Chemistry Review
- GRE Biology: Organic Chemistry Review
- GRE Biology: Cell Structure & Function
- GRE Biology: Cell Communication
- GRE Biology: Metabolic Biochemistry
- GRE Biology: Enzymatic Biochemistry
- GRE Biology: Biology Lab Methods
- GRE Biology: Genetic Foundations
- GRE Biology: Nucleic Acids
- GRE Biology: DNA Replication
- GRE Biology: Genetic Mutations
- GRE Biology: The Transcription & Translation Process
- GRE Biology: Introduction to Viruses
- GRE Biology: Bacterial Biology
- GRE Biology: Recombinant DNA Methodology
- GRE Biology: Environmental Exchanges in Organismal Biology
- GRE Biology: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- GRE Biology: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- GRE Biology: Male Reproductive Structures
- GRE Biology: Female Reproductive Structures
- GRE Biology: Animal Reproduction & Development
- GRE Biology: Plant Structure, Function, and Organization
- GRE Biology: Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development
- GRE Biology: Ecosystems, Biomes, and Habitats
- GRE Biology: Ecological Interactions
- GRE Biology: Ecological Chemical Cycling
- GRE Biology: The Diversity of Life
- GRE Biology: Behavioral Ecology
- GRE Biology Flashcards