About This Chapter
The Transcription & Translation Process - Chapter Summary
Watch our informative video lessons in this chapter to study the processes of transcription and translation in molecular biology. The lessons cover:
- The Central Dogma and cellular protein synthesis
- Transcription of mRNA from DNA
- Transcriptional repression and induction
- Splicing of introns and exons
- Codon recognition
- Steps for translating mRNA to protein
Taught by knowledgeable instructors, our video lessons use engaging animations and illustrations to make learning fun and help you fully understand the concepts. Each video is accompanied by a transcript of the lesson to reinforce what you learned on screen. Lesson quizzes and a chapter exam provide additional study tools for you to practice answering questions about the transcription and translation processes similar to those you may find on the GRE Biology Test.
GRE Biology Objectives
The GRE Biology Test is offered three times per year to applicants seeking to showcase their knowledge of biology to graduate school admissions committees. The test consists of 190 multiple-choice questions broken down into three main subject areas: cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution. Molecular biology questions, which include the transcription and translation processes, make up 16% to 17% of all test questions.
Our video lessons provide the information you need to know about the transcription and translation processes to prepare for the actual test. Tests are provided in paper format and include five answer choices per question.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?
How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.
7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code
How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.
9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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