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Ch 15: GRE Biology: The Transcription & Translation Process

About This Chapter

Review the transcription and translation processes to prepare for the GRE Biology Test. Offered in video format, these short, engaging lessons provide an effective way to refresh your knowledge of these processes.

The Transcription & Translation Process - Chapter Summary

Watch our informative video lessons in this chapter to study the processes of transcription and translation in molecular biology. The lessons cover:

  • The Central Dogma and cellular protein synthesis
  • Transcription of mRNA from DNA
  • Transcriptional repression and induction
  • Splicing of introns and exons
  • Codon recognition
  • Steps for translating mRNA to protein

Taught by knowledgeable instructors, our video lessons use engaging animations and illustrations to make learning fun and help you fully understand the concepts. Each video is accompanied by a transcript of the lesson to reinforce what you learned on screen. Lesson quizzes and a chapter exam provide additional study tools for you to practice answering questions about the transcription and translation processes similar to those you may find on the GRE Biology Test.

GRE Biology Objectives

The GRE Biology Test is offered three times per year to applicants seeking to showcase their knowledge of biology to graduate school admissions committees. The test consists of 190 multiple-choice questions broken down into three main subject areas: cellular and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution. Molecular biology questions, which include the transcription and translation processes, make up 16% to 17% of all test questions.

Our video lessons provide the information you need to know about the transcription and translation processes to prepare for the actual test. Tests are provided in paper format and include five answer choices per question.

10 Lessons in Chapter 15: GRE Biology: The Transcription & Translation Process
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Protein is necessary for healthy cells. Learn about the roles of central dogma and protein synthesis in the process to form protein molecules, and understand the function and importance of genes in this process.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

Transcription is an important part of the process to transform DNA into a living being. Learn about transcription, including when it begins and the three phases in its process. Understand which DNA strand is the template for transcription and explore the purposes of a promoter, polymerase, and mRNA.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Our bodies regulate gene expression. Learn the function of genes and understand gene regulation, including transcriptional repression as well as induction. Explore the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Operons are groups of genes that control transcription in a prokaryotic cell. Discover how operons repress or induct gene expressions in complex interactions of DNA, enzymes, and regulatory proteins.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

Eukaryotic cells have unique considerations for gene regulation that differ from those for prokaryote cells. Learn about these differences, understand introns and exons, and explore RNA processing in a eukaryotic cell through the splicing of introns and exons.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

RNA translates into amino acids through genetic code. Learn about the translation process and review the genetic code language, plus discover the role of codons, including start codons, stop codons, and other codons.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Codon recognition is the ability of codons to match with the proper amino acids. Discover how essential codon recognition is to the assembly of polypeptides, and how to read a codon chart.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

Codon recognition is tRNA's ability to match codons with the appropriate amino acids. Learn about this important part of the translation process for cells, understand its role in polypeptide assembly and protein production, and explore how tRNA and anticodons interpret the genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes live on the endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus and are key in the process of polypeptide assembly. This is essential for genetic translation because amino acid chains are linked together by peptide bonds. Explore the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds are formed.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

In genetics, the translation is the conversion of mRNA genetic code in amino acids. Learn about the mechanics of translation, including its three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination, understand how this process produces protein.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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More Exams
There are even more practice exams available in GRE Biology: The Transcription & Translation Process.

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