About This Chapter
Learning - Chapter Summary
Gain a solid understanding of numerous learning processes through this chapter's effective and engaging lessons. The short video lessons focus on the major conditioning approaches and associated limitations. Lessons in this chapter cover:
- Classical conditioning
- John Watson and his Little Albert experiment
- Operant conditioning and shaping
- The prisoner's dilemma
- Conditioning's limits
- The social-cognitive learning theory
This chapter's lessons contain key terms, figures and experiments in the study of learning in addition to practice questions and quizzes to gauge understanding of the material. Covered topics are individually illustrated in helpful video lessons that reinforce the main ideas behind learning.
GRE Psychology Objectives
The GRE Psychology Test is a subject test taken to demonstrate expertise for admission to advanced degree programs. The multiple-choice learning questions account for up to 5% of the psychology subject test. All of the learning topics you will be tested on are covered by our lessons. Some of the goals for these lessons are as follows:
- Discerning the difference between unconditioned and conditioned stimuli and responses
- Correct application of operant conditioning
- Understanding how learning occurs and is influenced simply through observation
- Application of the prisoner's dilemma as an illustration of competing vs. cooperating
The GRE Psychology Test includes roughly 200 multiple-choice questions with each question presenting a total of 5 answer options. The learning questions fall under the experimental category of the test and may require recall, recognition, application or research design evaluation.
1. Behavioral, Cognitive, Developmental, Social Cognitive & Constructivist Perspectives
How do different people learn? Not everyone agrees. In educational psychology, there are many differing perspectives. This lesson will differentiate between the following psychological perspectives: behavioral, cognitive, developmental, social cognitive and constructivist.
2. Classical Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Principles & Examples
Can you be conditioned to associate something new with something else you naturally respond to? In this lesson, we'll take a look at a famous psychological experiment that tested how brains have the ability to automatically react to new stimuli if it's conditioned correctly.
3. Operant Conditioning in Psychology: Definition, Theory & Examples
How do we adapt our behaviors to our advantage? Can we learn from punishment and reward? With operant conditioning, our behaviors are shaped based off the responses we get from them.
4. What is Shaping in Psychology? - Definition & Examples
How can teachers shape the behavior of their students? In this lesson, you'll not only discover how a pigeon learned how to bowl, but you'll also study the steps required to shape complex acts into continuous behaviors.
5. Schedules of Reinforcement in Psychology: Continuous & Partial
Have you ever wondered how our behavior is conditioned? How does the timing of rewards affect our behavior and our learning? In this lesson, we'll take a close look at how reinforcement scheduling can influence how fast we learn a behavior and how well the behavior is maintained.
6. What is the Prisoner's Dilemma? - Albert Tucker & Game Theory
Do you make decisions based on your own self- interest? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the famous 'prisoner's dilemma' game to see if individuals, when faced with a competitive or cooperative decision, will choose selfish or selfless outcomes.
7. Observational vs. Insight Learning: Albert Bandura & Wolfgang Kohler
Do you learn through observation or through sudden understanding? In this lesson, we'll take a look at two different methods of learning, which can affect your behavior and problem-solving ability.
8. Biological Limits on Conditioning: Taste Aversion, the Garcia Effect & Instincts
How can biological influences affect conditioning? Have you ever had food poisoning? In this lesson, you'll see how natural responses can accelerate or hinder conditioning.
9. Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: Definition and Examples
Have you learned behaviors or skills from observing others? Maybe you have learned from observing a teacher, friend, or supervisor. We acquire new knowledge and skills from a variety of methods. This lesson will introduce the concepts of the social-cognitive theory, which focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context.
10. Primary Reinforcers: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn what primary reinforcers are and look at three everyday examples to help you better understand the concept. Then, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
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Other chapters within the GRE Psychology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- GRE Psychology: History & Development of Modern Psychology
- GRE Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology
- GRE Psychology: Language
- GRE Psychology: Memory
- GRE Psychology: Thinking
- GRE Psychology: Sensation and Perception
- GRE Psychology: Physiological/Behavioral Neuroscience
- GRE Psychology: States of Consciousness
- GRE Psychology: Motivation, Arousal, Emotion
- GRE Psychology: Clinical Psychology
- GRE Psychology: Clinical Assessment
- GRE Psychology: Abnormal Psychology
- GRE Psychology: Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders
- GRE Psychology: Lifespan Development
- GRE Psychology: Theoretical Foundations of Lifespan Development
- GRE Psychology: Areas of Lifespan Development
- GRE Psychology: Personality
- GRE Psychology: Social Psychology
- GRE Psychology Flashcards