About This Chapter
Group Decisions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Working in a group isn't always easy. Each person brings their own ideas, agendas and work ethics to the group. Getting everyone to come to an agreement and then actually complete the assigned task is usually challenging. In this chapter, we will look at things like disagreements in groups, minority and majority influence and conformity. You will learn more about the dynamics of groups and how different things can influence group behavior. Some of the topics that will be covered include:
- Idiosyncrasy credits
- Group psychology
- Group norms
- Social loafing
- Leadership styles
|How to Disagree with the Group: Examples of Idiosyncrasy Credits||Study how this concept provides an avenue for individuals to disagree with the group.|
|Group Psychology: Minority vs. Majority Influence||Take a look at the criteria required for a minority group to influence the majority.|
|Injunctive and Descriptive Group Norms: Definitions, Differences & Examples||Explore group norms through looking at examples.|
|Asch's Line Experiment: Conformity and Social Norms||Examine this experiment to learn more about conformity and social norms.|
|Obedience and Authority||Discover Milgram's study on obedience and its significance.|
|Groupthink: Definition & Examples||Analyze the definition and examples of groupthink.|
|Social Loafing & Social Facilitation: Definition and Effects of Groups||Examine the effects of social loafing and social facilitation on groups.|
|Prisoner's Dilemma||Learn about the idea of selfless and selfish decision making.|
|Leadership Styles and Types: Authoritarian, Laissez-Faire & Democratic||Tour the different types of leadership styles to become acquainted with their different characteristics.|
1. How to Disagree with the Group: Examples of Idiosyncrasy Credits
In this lesson, you will learn about idiosyncrasy credit and the power it gives someone to disagree with the group. You will also learn how idiosyncrasy credit provides minority group members influence over majority decisions.
2. Group Psychology: Minority vs. Majority Influence
How would you change a belief or opinion of the majority to match your own? Is it even possible? Serge Moscovici believed it is and further stated that all progress is a result of the minority influence over the majority.
3. Injunctive and Descriptive Group Norms: Definitions, Differences & Examples
What is normal? Some people consider it normal to do the same thing everyone else is doing. Others may consider it normal to do what is proper, or expected. Discover why each is an example of using either an injunctive or a descriptive norm.
4. Asch's Line Experiment: Conformity and Social Norms
Would you change a belief or opinion to fit in with a group? Solomon Asch believed that most people would conform just to go along with the social norm, and he conducted an experiment to test his theory.
5. Social Roles: Philip Zimbardo's Prison Experiment
Philip Zimbardo ran a notorious experiment, simulating a prison scenario in the basement of a Stanford University building. As a result of the experiment, psychologists learned how situations affect behavior and the importance of ethics in psychology.
6. Stanley Milgram: Experiment & Obedience
Learn about Stanley Milgram's famous experiment on obedience to authority and what may determine obedience. Then, test yourself on why his experiment had such an impact in the psychology field.
7. Leadership Styles and Types: Authoritarian, Laissez-Faire & Democratic
Most of us are members of many different social groups, and several of those groups have leaders. In this lesson, we define and discuss both instrumental and expressive leadership in groups. We also cover three leadership decision-making styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.
8. Groupthink: Definition & Examples
Some groups are quick to make decisions to maintain cohesion, but this can be a critical mistake to make. This lesson explains the concept of groupthink using the Challenger explosion as an example.
9. Social Loafing & Social Facilitation: Definition and Effects of Groups
Do you prefer to work in a group or by yourself? Why? Working in a group certainly has a number of advantages and disadvantages. In this lesson, we discuss three phenomena that can occur as a result of working in groups: groupthink, social loafing, and social facilitation.
10. What is the Prisoner's Dilemma? - Albert Tucker & Game Theory
Do you make decisions based on your own self- interest? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the famous 'prisoner's dilemma' game to see if individuals, when faced with a competitive or cooperative decision, will choose selfish or selfless outcomes.
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