About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in the Harcourt Europe & the Western Hemisphere chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the Europe and the Western Hemisphere topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- History of the later Crusades
- Rise of the burgher class
- Limits to royal power: Magna Carta, Constitution of Clarendon
- Renaissance art, literature, religion and science
- Development of humanism
- Birth and spread of the Reformation
- Explorers, conquistadores and the Spanish Armada
- Definition and explanation of the Columbian Exchange
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1. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
2. Burgher Class: Definition & History
Let's look at the rise of a middle class group of people known as the burghers. You'll gain a sense of their role in medieval times as well as their legacy beyond it.
3. The Magna Carta & The Constitutions of Clarendon: Definition & Significance
In the High Middle Ages, rulers fought for supreme power. This lesson explores two of the earliest documents to limit power of an authority figure, whether it was the pope or a king.
4. The Renaissance Timeline: Events Overview
In this lesson, we will build an outline of the historical events which flow together to form the time periods of the Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Discovery, and the Elizabethan era.
5. Humanism in the Renaissance: Recognizing the Beauty of the Individual
In this lesson, we will be discussing how humanism changed the idea of the individual from something sinful and controlled by the Church into something of great beauty and worth.
6. Renaissance Art: Artists, Paintings, Sculptures & Architecture
In this lesson, we will be discussing Renaissance art, focusing primarily on paintings, sculptures, and architecture. We will also be learning how humanism affected the art of this time period.
7. Introduction to Renaissance Literature: Characterizing Authors and Works
Chances are, you've heard of the term 'Renaissance' before, but do you know what it means? Watch this video to learn about how this artistic movement forever altered England and the way we look at literature.
8. Science & Religion in Renaissance Europe
In this lesson, we will learn about science and religion during the Renaissance. We will explore the role these two forces played in Renaissance Europe, and we will identify the major themes involved.
9. The Spread of the Protestant Reformation Across Europe
In the 16th century, Martin Luther inspired people to believe that the Catholic Church shouldn't hold authority over laypeople. This lesson explores the spread of these Protestant ideas throughout Europe.
10. The Reformers & the Catholic Church: How Religious Beliefs Transformed During the Reformation
The Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation challenged the beliefs of the Catholic Church. This lesson explores some of the differing beliefs among Protestant and Catholic reformers.
11. The Old World and New World: Why Europeans Sailed to the Americas
This lesson will focus on the Age of Exploration. It will explain the main reasons why Europeans explored the New World. It will highlight their spirit of adventure, the religious desire to see natives converted, and the chance to acquire wealth.
12. Great Explorers of Spain and Portugal: Aims & Discoveries
This lesson will focus on the New World explorations of Spain and Portugal. It will list explorers from both of these countries while also highlighting the motivations behind European exploration.
13. The Spanish Armada: History and Major Battles
In this lesson, we will study the famous Spanish Armada and its attempt to invade England in 1588. We will discuss the Armada's background, preparation, voyage, and ultimate fate.
14. Conquistadors and Encomienda System: Definition & Savaging of the New World
This lesson will discuss the conquistadors of the New World. It will highlight Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro. It will also explain the encomienda system and its impact on the native populations.
15. The Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange is a term used to denote the world-changing exchange of agricultural goods, slave labor, diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after the year 1492 CE.
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Other chapters within the Harcourt Social Studies - World History: Online Textbook Help course
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 1: The World's Geography
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 2: Early People
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 3: The Tigris & Euphrates Valley
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 4: The Nile Valley
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 5: Asia & the Americas
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 6: Southwest Asian Civilizations
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 7: Asia's Classical Age
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 8: The Ancient Greeks
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 9: The Ancient Romans
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 10: Europe After the Romans
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 11: Africa & Asia
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 12: The Americas
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 13: New Empires
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 14: The Growth of Trade
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 16: The Eastern Hemisphere
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 17: Times of Rapid Change
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 18: Times of War & Times of Peace
- Harcourt Social Studies - World History Chapter 19: Global Challenges