About This Chapter
Heat and Thermodynamics - Chapter Summary
Master heat and thermodynamics properties with introductory lessons explaining the differences between temperature, heat and heat capacity as well as the various forms of energy. You'll also get a refresher on how the concept of entropy relates to the first and second laws of thermodynamics before studying the heat of fusion and heat of vaporization required for phase changes between solids, liquids and gases.
If you could use some extra help with thermal expansion concepts or calculations involving pressure, temperature, volume and moles of a gas, this chapter also includes lessons on the ideal gas law and the equation for linear thermal expansion. Topics of instruction include:
- Forms of energy and states of matter
- The laws of thermodynamics
- Heat and heat capacity
- Heat of fusion and heat of vaporization
- Mechanisms of heat transfer and thermal expansion
- The ideal gas law
- Plasma characteristics
- Cyclic processes
Whether you'd like to revisit a particular thermodynamics topic or want a complete review of the processes involved in energy transformation and heat transfer, this chapter's self-paced format allows you to access video lessons and transcripts in any order. You can also take short multiple-choice quizzes as many times as you need to develop your understanding of heat and thermodynamics concepts.
1. What is Heat? - Definition & Explanation
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of heat and find out how it differs from temperature. You will also explore practical applications of heat such as expansion, thermodynamics, heat transfer, specific heat, phase transitions, and heat engines.
2. What is Entropy? - Definition, Law & Formula
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of entropy and discover how it can be applied to everyday situations. You will explore the second law of thermodynamics which is where entropy is introduced, and you will examine the formula for entropy and find out how to use it in a variety of instances.
3. Forms of Energy: Thermal, Radiant, Chemical, Electric & Nuclear Energy
After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain what energy is, and describe in detail thermal, radiant, chemical, electric and nuclear energy. A short quiz will follow.
4. First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy
This video describes the first law of thermodynamics. Several examples of the application of this law are discussed. The significance of the law and its practical application are discussed as well.
5. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy and Systems
In this lesson, we'll learn about the second law of thermodynamics. By studying this law, you'll understand how energy works and why we're all moving towards eventual chaos and disorder.
6. Heat Capacity: Definition & Equation
This lesson covers the topic of heat capacity, which is a core concept of thermodynamics. We will review the definition of heat and explore how it relates to an object's heat capacity.
7. Heat of Fusion: Definition, Equation & Examples
This lesson will examine the heat of fusion, which is the energy required for matter to change between a liquid and a solid. In this lesson, we review the concepts of latent heat and work through a problem using our new understanding of the heat of fusion.
8. Heat of Vaporization: Definition & Equation
In this lesson, you'll learn about the heat required to transform a liquid to its gas phase. Specifically, we'll explore the factors affecting heat of vaporization, including how to estimate it and how it changes between different substances.
9. Mechanisms of Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection & Radiation
There are three main ways that heat is transferred between substances or objects. In this video lesson you'll learn about each one, and identify the differences between them.
10. Thermal Expansion: Importance & Examples
After watching this video, you will be able to explain what thermal expansion is, why it is important, provide some examples of thermal expansion in real life and complete basic thermal expansion calculations. A short quiz will follow.
11. The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Properties of Gases
What makes a gas ideal? What types of characteristics do ideal gases have? In this lesson, we will discuss the many characteristics of gases and how knowing the microscopic properties of gas particles will help you understand the macroscopic properties of a gas.
12. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
13. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas
In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.
14. Differences Between Plasma & Ideal Gas
In this lesson we will describe both ideal and non-ideal gases. We then introduce plasmas, which are similar to non-ideal gases in that they exhibit substantial interactions between particles.
15. Comparing Heat & Temperature
Heat and temperature aren't the same thing, contrary to everyday usage. Learn about the differences between the two concepts in science. Test your understanding with a quiz.
16. Phase Changes and Heating Curves
Learn the phases - gas, liquid, solid and plasma. Learn what a phase diagram is and what terms describe the movement between phases: melting, sublimating, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and deposition. Discover why heating curves have plateaus, what a phase transition is, and what happens during this transition.
17. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
18. Using Thermodynamic Properties to Solve Problems
Thermodynamic properties, such as specific heat and thermal conductivity, tell us a lot about a material. In this lesson, we will learn how to solve problems using these thermodynamic properties.
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Other chapters within the College Physics: Help & Review course
- Scientific Inquiry
- Formulating Scientific Questions
- Planning a Scientific Investigation
- Observation and Data Collection
- Data Analysis and Graphing
- Drawing and Explaining Conclusions
- Safety During Science Experiments
- Scientific Ethics
- Motion and Newton's Laws
- Kinematic Equations in Physics
- Properties of Rotational Motion
- Linear Momentum Principles
- Work, Energy and Power
- Characteristics of Waves
- Electrical & Magnetic Forces
- Electric Potential & Capacitance
- Physics Circuits
- Magnetic Forces and Fields
- Quantum Mechanics and the Standard Model
- Science Literacy
- Diversity in Science
- Historical Perspectives in Physics
- Science, Technology and Beliefs