About This Chapter
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How is the study of psychology defined?
- What is the difference between functionalism and structuralism?
- How do the behavioral, Gestalt and psychoanalytic approaches to psychology differ?
- What are some post-1950's areas of specialization?
- How do psychologists conduct ethical experiments?
1. Why Study Psychology? - Overview & Experiments
What at first seems obvious may not be the case. Psychology looks past intuitions and feelings to search for the true roots to our behaviors. Watch this lesson to learn about two experiments that demonstrate how testing the 'obvious' can yield surprising results.
2. What Is Psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. In this lesson, you'll get an overview of the five main approaches that have guided modern psychological research.
3. The Science of Psychology: Experiments & the Scientific Method
How do psychologists use the scientific method to research behaviors? From formulating hypotheses to reducing biases, psychology carefully analyzes behaviors and their potential causes.
4. Two Early Approaches: Functionalism and Structuralism
What were the first two approaches to psychology, and how were they related? What do introspection and evolutionary principles have to do with it? In this lesson, you'll explore structuralism and functionalism.
5. Three Later Approaches: Gestalt, Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism
How was psychology studied in the early twentieth century? In this lesson, you'll look at three common approaches of the early twentieth century and get a sense of the diverse routes psychologists can take as they study how the mind works.
6. Psychological Specializations: Cognitive, Humanistic, Social, Developmental & Clinical
Psychologists today study behavior through five main specializations: cognitive, humanistic, social, developmental and clinical. In this lesson, you'll focus on the central ideas behind each approach.
7. Ethics in Psychological Experiments: Importance & Examples
What are the ethical principles of psychological research? In this lesson, you'll take a look at the careful considerations a psychologist must make with respect to her participants when she designs a test.
8. Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning: Theory, Experiments & Contributions to Psychology
Ivan Pavlov and his theory of classical conditioning had a profound impact on the understanding of human behavior. This lesson explains classical conditioning and Pavlov's contributions to psychology.
9. Social Stratification: Definition, Theories & Examples
Social stratification refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. Let's examine some of the theories surrounding this concept.
10. Anna Freud: Biography & Theories
This lesson focuses on Anna Freud, daughter of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Like her father, Anna worked in the field of psychology most of her life. Her theories and papers form a body of work that still underlies modern psychology and psychoanalysis.
11. Cultural Universals in Sociology: Definition & Examples
Learn how different actions and choices between two cultures can actually be accomplishing a similar goal under the surface. Learn about the universal constants that have guided human behavior and culture throughout history in this lesson.
12. Basic Psychological Processes: Definition & Overview
In this lesson, we will look at five basic processes psychologists use to better understand the mind and human behavior: sensation, perception, attention, learning, and memory.
13. Franz Joseph Gall & Phrenology Theory: Definition & Overview
Learn about phrenology. Understand the theory behind its practice and how it was used to help explain human personality and behavior. Learn about its important role in the development of neurology.
14. Gustav Fechner: Psychology Theory & Explanation
In this lesson, you will learn about Gustav Fechner and the influence he had on the field of psychology. Specifically, you will learn how Fechner's background in religion and science helped him forge the way to making psychology a quantifiable science.
15. Psychodynamic Psychology: Definition & Explanation
Psychodynamic psychology began with Sigmund Freud, but, over time, his theory of psychoanalysis gave birth to revised perspectives among people who styled themselves Neo-Freudians. In this lesson, you'll get an overview of key Neo-Freudians and how they revised Freud's ideas.
16. Psychosurgery: Definition, Types & History
More controversial than any other treatment for mental disorders, psychosurgery is seldom used today. In this lesson you will learn about the history of psychosurgery along with the various types. Then, test your knowledge with a quiz.
17. William James & Psychology: Theories, Overview
Often referred to as 'The Father of American Psychology,' William James was one of the first prominent American psychologists. His ideas on how the human mind functions led to his development and influence on the budding field of psychology here in the United States.
18. Pseudo-psychology: Definition & Examples
This lesson examines what is meant by the term 'pseudo-psychology,' and gives examples to illustrate how pseudo-psychology differs from scientifically based psychology. Afterwards, take the quiz to test what you learned.
19. Pseudoscience: Examples & Definition
In science fiction, pseudoscience can be used as an exciting plot device to move a story along, but where does it fit in the real world? Through this lesson you'll learn what defines pseudoscience and gain insight into how and why it exists.
20. Psychodynamics: Definition & Theory
Psychodynamics has been a popular set of theories in psychology since emerging from Europe in the 19th century. Through this lesson, you'll learn how to define psychodynamics and explore some of the more prominent theories that comprise the psychodynamic approach to psychology.
21. Robert Rescorla: Biography & Psychology
This article summarizes the contributions Robert Rescorla has made to psychology. Specific detail is given to his groundbreaking discoveries in the field of Pavlovian conditioning, out of which arose the contingency theory.
22. Lewis Terman: Biography & Intelligence Quotient
Lewis Terman was an American psychologist whose early 20th century work has been profoundly influential in the field of educational psychology. Through this lesson, you'll explore his biography and learn about his contributions to the testing of intelligence quotients.
23. Mary Whiton Calkins & Psychology: Biography & Theory
In this lesson, you'll read about Mary Whiton Calkins, a pioneer in the budding field of psychology and the first female president of the American Psychological Association. Learn about her contributions to the study of memory, dreaming, and self-psychology.
24. The American Psychiatric Association: Definition, Guidelines & Publications
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is a professional organization of psychiatrists that promotes psychiatry and educates people about the field. In this lesson you will learn more about what the APA is and how they function.
25. The American Psychological Association: Definition, Divisions & Publications
The American Psychological Association is one of the most visible professional organizations. From manuals to journal publications, the APA helps professionals stay informed about the state of the science of psychology.
26. Wilhelm Wundt's Explanation of Introspection
Wilhelm Wundt offered a foundation for psychology, and many today note him as the father of psychology. This lesson aims to describe and define Wundt's emphasis on the process of introspection.
27. Best Psychology Books for Beginners
Introduce yourself to a few of the many different fields of psychology with this list of diverse psychology books. You'll also find several resources that can help you get a better understanding of the content in each book.
28. Best Psychology Books for Undergraduates
If you are searching for a list of psychology books that introduce a wide variety of concepts, look no further. Students at the undergraduate level can find popularly recommended psychology books through this reading list and supportive companion lessons below.
29. Jeffrey Young and Schema Therapy
In this lesson, we will learn about Schema Therapy and the psychologist who developed it, Jeffrey Young. We will examine what Schema Therapy is and how it is used.
30. Kenneth Clark: Biography & Doll Study
In this lesson, we'll talk about the biography of the noted psychologist Kenneth B. Clark and some of his major accomplishments in the field of psychology. We'll also look closely at a well-known experiment called the doll study.
31. Freud's Dream Psychology & Analysis
Sigmund Freud did extensive research into the human mind in order to explain human behavior. One of his focus areas was dream analysis. In this lesson you will learn about Freud's research and findings related to dream analysis. You will also learn about what critics say in relation to his research.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Psychology: Help and Review course
- Biological Bases of Behavior: Help and Review
- Sensation and Perception: Help and Review
- States of Consciousness: Help and Review
- Learning: Help and Review
- Cognition: Help and Review
- Motivation and Emotion: Help and Review
- Developmental Psychology: Help and Review
- Personality: Help and Review
- Social Psychology Topics: Help and Review
- Psychological Disorders and Health: Help and Review
- Psychological Treatments: Help and Review
- Statistics, Tests and Measurement in Psychology: Help and Review
- Neurological Treatment for Psychological Issues