About This Chapter
AP Psychology: History and Development of Modern Psychology - Chapter Summary
Though people have always been curious about how our minds work, the study of mental processes, a scientific field called psychology, is relatively new. In this AP Psychology test prep chapter, you'll learn about the first psychological experiments and the ways in which early psychologists studied the mind. From structuralism to dualism to the biopsychosocial model, you'll explore the theories that make up the foundation of psychology. You'll also review how biological functions, like genetics and evolution, play into the formation of self and thought. By the end of this chapter you will be able to:
- Discuss the beginnings of psychology and the early schools of thought
- Understand the scientific method as used by psychologists in experiments and clinical research
- Explore the dualism of the body and mind as theorized by Hobbes, Descartes, and Locke
- Compare and contrast functionalism and structuralism
- Understand how thinking about the evolution of humans impacts the field of psychology
- Explain the processes of natural selection and adaptation and how they work with the theory of evolution.
- Discuss how various 20th century psychologists approached the study of the mind in relation to these fields within psychology: gestalt, psychoanalysis and behaviorism
- Describe the various branches of psychology that emerged in the late 20th century, including cognitive, humanistic, and clinical psychology
Our expert instructors have created this chapter to give you an in-depth overview of the complex topic of the history of psychology as a discipline. By watching the brief videos and engaging in self-check quizzes, you will be able to easily determine your level of understanding of the many details involved in psychology's development over the course of the last century.
1. Why Study Psychology? - Overview & Experiments
What at first seems obvious may not be the case. Psychology looks past intuitions and feelings to search for the true roots to our behaviors. Watch this lesson to learn about two experiments that demonstrate how testing the 'obvious' can yield surprising results.
2. What Is Psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. In this lesson, you'll get an overview of the five main approaches that have guided modern psychological research.
3. The Science of Psychology: Experiments & the Scientific Method
How do psychologists use the scientific method to research behaviors? From formulating hypotheses to reducing biases, psychology carefully analyzes behaviors and their potential causes.
4. Dualism and Early Psychological Thought
Sometimes it can feel like your mind and body are completely separate from each other. Watch this lesson to find out about what the philosopher Descartes termed dualism, including its relationship to psychology and the types of dualism.
5. Two Early Approaches: Functionalism and Structuralism
What were the first two approaches to psychology, and how were they related? What do introspection and evolutionary principles have to do with it? In this lesson, you'll explore structuralism and functionalism.
6. Evolutionary Theory's Applications to Learning
In this lesson you will learn about evolutionary theory's application to instinctual learning and human development through natural selection. There is a quiz to test your knowledge at the end.
7. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
8. Three Later Approaches: Gestalt, Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism
How was psychology studied in the early twentieth century? In this lesson, you'll look at three common approaches of the early twentieth century and get a sense of the diverse routes psychologists can take as they study how the mind works.
9. Psychological Specializations: Cognitive, Humanistic, Social, Developmental & Clinical
Psychologists today study behavior through five main specializations: cognitive, humanistic, social, developmental and clinical. In this lesson, you'll focus on the central ideas behind each approach.
10. What is the Biopsychosocial Model? - Definition & Example
The biopsychosocial model is a tool that psychologists use to examine how psychological disorders develop. This lesson will provide a definition of this model and provide specific examples to illustrate how it can be used.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
- AP Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology
- AP Psychology: Intelligence Testing
- AP Psychology: Biology in Psychology
- AP Psychology: The 5 Senses & Psychology
- AP Psychology: Sleep and Other States of Consciousness
- AP Psychology: Learning & Conditioning
- AP Psychology: Memory & Cognition
- AP Psychology: Emotion
- AP Psychology: Motivation in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Child Development in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Personality Development and Theories
- AP Psychology: Study of Social Psychology
- AP Psychology: Abnormal Psychology
- AP Psychology: Types of Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Test Strategy
- AP Psychology Flashcards