About This Chapter
History and Development of Modern Psychology - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Though people have always been curious about how our minds work, the study of mental processes, a scientific field called psychology, is relatively new. In this chapter, you'll learn about the first psychological experiments and the ways in which early psychologists studied the mind. From structuralism to dualism to psychoanalysis, you'll explore the theories that make up the foundation of psychology. You'll also get to hear about how biological functions, like genetics and evolution, play into the formation of self and thought. This chapter can help you understand:
- How psychologists use the scientific method to study the mind
- The beginnings of psychology and the early schools of thought
- What some of the first psychological experiments discovered
- How biology impacts our minds
- The way psychology branched out of philosophy into a wide-reaching scientific field
|Intro to Psychology||Learn how asking questions about things that we think are obvious can lead to some surprising answers, as shown in Solomon Asch's famous experiment.|
|What is Psychology?||Explore the five main approaches used in modern psychology: biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic.|
|Psychology is a Science||Understand the scientific method as used by psychologists in experiments and clinical research.|
|Dualism and Early Psychological Thought||Explore the dualism of the body and mind as theorized by Hobbes, Descartes, and Locke.|
|Two Early Approaches: Functionalism and Structuralism||Learn about Wilhelm Wundt's first psychological experiment and how psychology got its scientific start.|
|Evolutionary Theory||Understand how thinking about the evolution of humans impacts the field of psychology.|
|Natural Selection and Adaptation||Explore the processes of natural selection and adaptation and how they work with the theory of evolution.|
|Behavioral Genetics||Learn about how genetics can influence behavior and examine the nature versus nurture debate.|
|Three Later Approaches: Gestalt, Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism||Understand how early 20th century psychologists approached the study of the mind.|
|Psychology after 1950: Overview of Specializations||Discover the various branches of psychology that emerged in the late 20th century, including cognitive, humanistic, and clinical psychology.|
1. Why Study Psychology? - Overview & Experiments
What at first seems obvious may not be the case. Psychology looks past intuitions and feelings to search for the true roots to our behaviors. Watch this lesson to learn about two experiments that demonstrate how testing the 'obvious' can yield surprising results.
2. What Is Psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of how we think, feel and behave. In this lesson, you'll get an overview of the five main approaches that have guided modern psychological research.
3. The Science of Psychology: Experiments & the Scientific Method
How do psychologists use the scientific method to research behaviors? From formulating hypotheses to reducing biases, psychology carefully analyzes behaviors and their potential causes.
4. Dualism and Early Psychological Thought
Sometimes it can feel like your mind and body are completely separate from each other. Watch this lesson to find out about what the philosopher Descartes termed dualism, including its relationship to psychology and the types of dualism.
5. Two Early Approaches: Functionalism and Structuralism
What were the first two approaches to psychology, and how were they related? What do introspection and evolutionary principles have to do with it? In this lesson, you'll explore structuralism and functionalism.
6. Evolutionary Theory's Applications to Learning
In this lesson you will learn about evolutionary theory's application to instinctual learning and human development through natural selection. There is a quiz to test your knowledge at the end.
7. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
8. Three Later Approaches: Gestalt, Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism
How was psychology studied in the early twentieth century? In this lesson, you'll look at three common approaches of the early twentieth century and get a sense of the diverse routes psychologists can take as they study how the mind works.
9. Psychological Specializations: Cognitive, Humanistic, Social, Developmental & Clinical
Psychologists today study behavior through five main specializations: cognitive, humanistic, social, developmental and clinical. In this lesson, you'll focus on the central ideas behind each approach.
10. What is the Biopsychosocial Model? - Definition & Example
The biopsychosocial model is a tool that psychologists use to examine how psychological disorders develop. This lesson will provide a definition of this model and provide specific examples to illustrate how it can be used.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
- AP Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology
- AP Psychology: Intelligence Testing
- AP Psychology: Biology in Psychology
- AP Psychology: The 5 Senses & Psychology
- AP Psychology: Sleep and Other States of Consciousness
- AP Psychology: Learning & Conditioning
- AP Psychology: Memory & Cognition
- AP Psychology: Emotion
- AP Psychology: Motivation in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Child Development in Psychology
- AP Psychology: Personality Development and Theories
- AP Psychology: Study of Social Psychology
- AP Psychology: Abnormal Psychology
- AP Psychology: Treatment Methods for Psychological Disorders
- AP Psychology: Test Strategy
- AP Psychology Flashcards