About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in the Holt McDougal History of Life chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the history of life topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn about:
- Fossils as evidence
- Relative dating with fossils
- Radiometric and radiocarbon dating methods
- The geologic time scale
- The history and major eras of planet Earth
- The endosymbiosis theory
- Sexual reproduction's evolution
- Primates and humans
- Human evolution
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1. Fossil Evidence: Definition & Overview
Fossils are critical tools in science because they give us clues to the types of plants and animals that lived on Earth in the past. In this lesson, you will learn about the types of fossils and how they were formed.
2. Relative Dating with Fossils: Index Fossils as Indicators of Time
You may already know how to date a fossil with a rock. But did you know that we can also date a rock with a fossil? Watch this video to find out how we use index fossils to establish the relative ages of rocks.
3. Radiometric Dating: Methods, Uses & the Significance of Half-Life
Radiometric dating is used to estimate the age of rocks and other objects based on the fixed decay rate of radioactive isotopes. Learn about half-life and how it is used in different dating methods, such as uranium-lead dating and radiocarbon dating, in this video lesson.
4. Geologic Time Scale: Major Eons, Eras, Periods and Epochs
The geologic time scale is an essential tool for understanding the history of Earth and the evolution of life. In this lesson, explore the principal eons, eras, periods, and epochs that help us track major events in geologic history.
5. The Origin of Life on Earth: Theories and Explanations
Ever wonder how living things came from non-living things? We will explore what conditions on early Earth may have created life from non-living items.
6. Cyanobacteria: Definition, Characteristics & Species
Cyanobacteria are a phylum of Bacteria that produce oxygen during photosynthesis. This lesson will examine cyanobacteria and the role they played in establishing our oxygen-rich atmosphere.
7. The Endosymbiosis Theory: Evolution of Cells
Ever wonder why some cells are very simple and others are complex with countless organelles to remember? We will look at how simple cells evolved to become more complex cells - as well as evidence to support this.
8. The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction is one of two ways that organisms reproduce. In this lesson, we'll explore why sexual reproduction is so common as well as how it contributes to diverse populations.
9. The History of Life on Earth: Timeline and Characteristics of Major Eras
The Earth is over 4.6 billion years old. Ever wonder what happened during certain time periods in that large amount of time? We will look at the major eons and eras of Earth's history along with important characteristics of each.
10. Primates and Human Origin
You probably know that you are a primate, just like gorillas and monkeys. But you may be surprised to find out how long primates have been around and how many of them are still living on Earth, which are covered in this lesson.
11. The Evolution of Humans: Characteristics & Evolutionary History
Just like other organisms, humans have changed over time. We will look at the evolution of humans as well as connections with our primate relatives, including Old World and New World primates.
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Other chapters within the Holt McDougal Biology: Online Textbook Help course
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 1: Biology in the 21st Century
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 3: Cell Structure & Function
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 4: Cells & Energy
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 5: Cell Growth & Division
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 6: Meiosis & Mendel
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 7: Extending Mendelian Genetics
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 8: From DNA to Proteins
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 9: Frontiers of Biotechnology
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 10: Principles of Evolution
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 11: The Evolution of Populations
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 13: Principles of Ecology
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 14: Interactions in Ecosystems
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 15: The Biosphere
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 16: Human Impact on Ecosystems
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 17: The Tree of Life
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 18: Viruses & Prokaryotes
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 19: Protists & Fungi
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 20: Plant Diversity
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 21: Plant Structure & Function
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 22: Plant Growth, Reproduction & Response
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 23: Invertebrate Diversity
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 24: A Closer Look at Arthropods
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 25: Vertebrate Diversity
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 26: A Closer Look at Amniotes
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 27: Animal Behavior
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 28: Human Systems & Homeostasis
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 29: Nervous & Endocrine Systems
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 30: Respiratory & Circulatory Systems
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 31: Immune System & Disease
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 32: Digestive & Excretory Systems
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 33: Protection, Support & Movement
- Holt McDougal Biology Chapter 34: Reproduction & Development