About This Chapter
How it works:
- Identify the lessons in the Holt McDougal Rock and Fossil Record chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the rock and fossil record topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- Geological evolution theories
- Paleontology and archaeology facts
- Methods of geological dating
- Relative dating concepts
- Radiometric dating principles
- Half-life significance
- Fossil preservation conditions
- Relative dating using fossils
- Geologic time scale
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1. Theories of Geological Evolution: Catastrophism vs Uniformitarianism
Geologists haven't always agreed about the history of our planet. They have debated between catastrophism and uniformitarianism over the last few hundred years! Learn about the two main theories of geologic evolution and how scientists came to resolve the dispute.
2. What Are Paleontology & Archaeology? - Definition, History & Facts
While they do have similarities, paleontology and archaeology are two fields with different goals. In this lesson, you'll learn about these unique sciences, as well as some of the sub-disciplines that fall under each.
3. Methods of Geological Dating: Numerical and Relative Dating
Learn how scientists determine the ages of rocks and fossils. We'll explore both relative and numerical dating on our quest to understand the process of geological dating. Along the way, we'll learn how stratigraphic succession and radioactive decay contribute to the work of paleontologists.
4. What is Relative Dating? - Law of Superposition, Principles of Original Horizontality & Cross-Cutting Relationships
Discover how geologists study the layers in sedimentary rock to establish relative age. Learn how inclusions and unconformities can tell us stories about the geologic past. We'll even visit the Grand Canyon to solve the mystery of the Great Unconformity!
5. Principles of Radiometric Dating
Radiometric dating is a method used to determine the age of rocks and other materials based on the rate of radioactive decay. Learn about three common types of radioactive decay: alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay.
6. Radiometric Dating: Methods, Uses & the Significance of Half-Life
Radiometric dating is used to estimate the age of rocks and other objects based on the fixed decay rate of radioactive isotopes. Learn about half-life and how it is used in different dating methods, such as uranium-lead dating and radiocarbon dating, in this video lesson.
7. Conditions of Fossil Preservation: Rapid Burial, Hard Parts & the Elements
Learn how fossils are formed and how varying conditions affect the preservation of organisms. What is the best way for a dinosaur to become fossilized? Find out here!
8. Relative Dating with Fossils: Index Fossils as Indicators of Time
You may already know how to date a fossil with a rock. But did you know that we can also date a rock with a fossil? Watch this video to find out how we use index fossils to establish the relative ages of rocks.
9. Geologic Time Scale: Major Eons, Eras, Periods and Epochs
The geologic time scale is an essential tool for understanding the history of Earth and the evolution of life. In this lesson, explore the principal eons, eras, periods, and epochs that help us track major events in geologic history.
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Other chapters within the Holt McDougal Earth Science: Online Textbook Help course
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 1 - The World of Earth Science
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 2 - Maps as Models of the Earth
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 3 - Minerals of the Earth's Crust
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 4 - Rocks: Mineral Mixtures
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 5 - Energy Resources
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 7 - Plate Tectonics
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 8 - Earthquakes
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 9 - Volcanoes
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 10 - Weathering and Soil Formation
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 11 - The Flow of Fresh Water
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 12 - Agents of Erosion and Deposition
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 13 - Exploring the Oceans
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 14 - The Movement of Ocean Water
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 15 - The Atmosphere
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 16 - Understanding Weather
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 17 - Climate
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 18 - Studying Space
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 19 - Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 20 - Formation of the Solar System
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 21 - A Family of Planets
- Holt McDougal Earth Science Chapter 22 - Exploring Space