About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry's Biological Chemistry chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the biological chemistry topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
- Formation of peptide bonds
- Structure of amino acids
- Higher order structures of proteins
- Function of enzymes
- Autotrophs and heterotrophs
- ATP synthesis
- Examples of anabolism and catabolism
- Chemical structure of nucleic acids
- Complementary base pairing
- Structure of DNA
- DNA replication
- Types of RNA
- Process of DNA cloning
- Ligase and recombinant DNA technology
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1. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
2. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
3. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
4. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
5. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
6. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
7. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
8. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Ever wonder where your energy comes from? What about a plant's energy? And where does it go? Learn about the flow of energy through the food chain in this lesson on autotrophs and heterotrophs.
9. Muscle Metabolism: Synthesis of ATP
Did you know our muscles use billions of molecules every second to contract? This lesson describes the different metabolic processes by which ATP is generated by the muscle cell. Examples are utilized to define glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
10. Anabolism and Catabolism: Definitions & Examples
Metabolism breaks down large molecules like food into usable energy. This energy drives bodily processes critical to survival. In this video lesson, you will learn about the two forms of metabolism that break down and build up molecules and see examples of each.
11. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
12. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
13. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
14. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities
How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.
15. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
16. DNA Cloning: Definition and Process
DNA cloning is used for a variety of purposes, but how does it work? In this video lesson, you will learn about the process of cloning DNA, as well as see examples of how cloning is used in science, medicine, and consumer products.
17. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
DNA ligase makes recombinant DNA technology possible. In this lesson, you will learn how new versions of genes can be designed for experiments in novel host organisms using DNA ligase.
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Other chapters within the Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry: Online Textbook Help course
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 1: Matter and Change
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 2: Measurements and Calculations
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 3: Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 4: Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 5: The Periodic Law
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 7: Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 9: Stoichiometry
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 10: States of Matter
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 11: Gases
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 12: Solutions
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 13: Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 14: Acids and Bases
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 15: Acid-Base Titration and pH
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 16: Reaction Energy
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 17: Reaction Kinetics
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 19: Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 20: Introduction to Electrochemistry
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry
- Holt McDougal Modern Chemistry Chapter 22: Organic Chemistry