About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in the Holt Science Spectrum - Physical Science Universe chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover topics on the universe you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- Stars as a source of light
- Astronomical units and light years
- Types of telescopes
- The structure of the sun
- Red giant, asymptotic giant branch and horizontal branch stars
- White dwarfs, supernovas and black holes
- Definitions and differences among the solar system, galaxy and the universe
- Types of galaxy clusters
- Types of galaxies and how they form
- Formation and structure of the Milky Way galaxy
- Theories explaining the universe's origin
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1. Stars as a Source of Light: Definition & Explanation
After reviewing this lesson, you will be able to explain how stars are a source of light, and why we see other objects in our solar system. A short quiz will follow.
2. Astronomical Units & Light Years: Definition & Examples
After watching this video, you will be able to explain why we need special astronomical ways of measuring distance. You will also be able to state the meaning of the terms astronomical unit, light year and parsec. A short quiz will follow.
3. Types of Telescopes: Radio, Reflecting & Refracting Telescopes
Learn about the different types of telescopes that astronomers use: X-ray, radio, gamma ray, reflecting and refracting. Learn what the differences are between them and what different things they show us about the universe.
4. Structure of the Sun
Discover the layers of the sun, including the core, radiative zone, convective zone, photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. Find out which layers you can see from Earth. Investigate what sunspots and solar flares are.
5. Red Giant, Horizontal & Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
This lesson will outline how stars of low to intermediate mass die as seen on the H-R diagram. We'll cover important key terms such as red giant branch stars, asymptotic branch stars, and horizontal branch stars.
6. What Are White Dwarfs? - Stellar Remnant Characteristics
White dwarfs are incredible little stellar remnants. Which begs the question, are they actually stars or not? This lesson will tell you if and why and how white dwarfs come to be. That, and you'll learns some incredible facts about them as well.
7. Supernova: How Massive Stars Explode
This lesson will explain how it is that a supernova comes to be by delving into how concepts like iron, core contraction, a core bounce, the strong force, and neutrinos all play a role in this event.
8. Life Cycle of Black Holes
Learn about black holes, their myths and their reality. Learn how black holes form after stars undergo supernovae and create singularities. Discover how big black holes grow, how scientists find black holes and where black holes are located in the universe.
9. Solar System, Galaxy, & Universe: Definitions & Difference
Want to learn what the universe, galaxy, and solar system are as well as some cool facts about each one? This lesson will give you an overview of what these three things are in a relatable fashion.
10. What Are the Different Types of Galaxy Clusters?
This lesson will define five different types of clusters: rich, poor, irregular, regular, and superclusters. We'll also find out what voids are and what the Local Group is.
11. Galaxy Formation: Spiral, Elliptical & Irregular Galaxies
This lesson explains how galaxies form, starting with the Big Bang. You'll also learn about the solar nebula hypothesis and three galaxy types, including spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies.
12. The Formation of the Milky Way Galaxy
This lesson will explore two hypotheses as to how the Milky Way galaxy formed. These are the top-down and bottom-up hypotheses. We'll also go into what special connection you personally have to all of this.
13. The Structure of Our Galaxy
If you ever looked up at the night sky far away from city lights, you would've seen a band of light across the night sky and lots of stars scattered around the rest of the sky. Why? The structure of our galaxy will explain exactly why.
14. What Are Quasars?
This lesson will go over the odd-sounding term quasar. You'll learn how the term appeared, the different kinds of quasars, and what they are actually believed to be.
15. Origins of the Universe: The Big Bang and Expanding & Contracting Universes
Students will learn the origins of the universe, the Big Bang theory, the timeline of the universe, how the universe is still expanding to this day, and what astronomers expect the universe to look like in the future.
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Other chapters within the Holt Science Spectrum - Physical Science: Online Textbook Help course
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 1: Introduction to Science
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 2: Matter
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 3: States of Matter & Energy
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 4: Atoms & the Periodic Table
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 5: The Structure of Matter
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 6: Chemical Reactions
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 7: Solutions
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 8: Acids, Bases & Salts
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 9: Nuclear Changes
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 10: Motion
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 11: Forces
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 12: Work & Energy
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 13: Heat & Temperature
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 14: Waves
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 15: Sound & Light
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 16: Electricity
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 17: Magnetism
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 18: Communication Technology
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 19: The Solar System
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 21: Planet Earth
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 22: The Atmosphere
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 23: Using Natural Resources