About This Chapter
How It Works:
- Identify the lessons in the Holt Science Spectrum - Physical Science Planet Earth chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the Earth topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- Earth's layers
- Plate tectonics, boundaries and subduction zones
- Earthquakes, seismic waves and the Richter scale
- Minerals, rocks and the rock cycle
- Relative and radiometric dating
- Effects of deposition and erosion on landforms
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1. Earth's Internal Layers: Crust, Mantle & Core
Earth is made up of several different layers, each with unique properties. In this video lesson, you will identify each layer of Earth and how it relates to Earth as a whole.
2. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
After many years of trying to solve the mystery of the moving continents, enough data and evidence was collected to develop a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. It's called plate tectonics.
3. Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement
In this lesson, we explore the causes of plate movement, including thermal convection, ridge push and slab pull. Students will learn how these processes complement each other and form a theory for tectonic plate movement.
4. Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, and Transform Boundaries
In the theory of plate tectonics, the earth's crust is broken into plates that move around relative to each other. As a result of this movement, three types of plate boundaries are formed: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries.
5. Subduction Zone: Definition, Location & Example
This lesson will discuss the meaning of the term 'subduction zone,' and where they occur in terms of tectonic plate boundaries. A few examples will be included, and a short quiz will follow.
6. What is an Earthquake? - Definition and Components
Earthquakes are well known for the damage and destruction they leave behind. But what is an earthquake? In this video lesson you will learn about what causes earthquakes and the various components involved in these powerful natural disasters.
7. Seismic Wave: Definition, Types & Frequency
In this lesson, you will learn what seismic waves are, the various types of seismic waves, and their frequencies. You will learn about P-waves, S-waves, Rayleigh waves and Love waves. A short quiz will follow.
8. Using the Richter Scale to Measure Earthquakes
In this video lesson, you will learn about earthquake magnitude and how it is measured. You will also learn how that relates to the amount of energy released during an earthquake, as well as how common different magnitude earthquakes are around the world.
9. What is a Volcano? - Definition & Eruptions
Volcanoes are vents that allow lava, rock fragments and gases to escape from layers beneath the earth's surface. Learn how volcanoes form both on land and underwater and why they erupt.
10. Types of Volcanoes: Shield, Cinder Cones & Composite Cones
The earth ejects lava, rock fragments, hot vapor and gases during volcanic eruptions. Volcanoes vary based on size, shape, composition and eruptive style. Learn about the different types of volcanoes, such as shield, cinder cone and composite cone.
11. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences
Can you tell the difference between a rock and a mineral? What makes a mineral so much different from a rock? Explore these questions in depth, and learn how we classify rocks and minerals.
12. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
In this lesson, we will discuss the three main types of rocks and how they are formed. The lesson also gives an introduction into how matter locked in rocks can be cycled through the earth.
13. What is Relative Dating? - Law of Superposition, Principles of Original Horizontality & Cross-Cutting Relationships
Discover how geologists study the layers in sedimentary rock to establish relative age. Learn how inclusions and unconformities can tell us stories about the geologic past. We'll even visit the Grand Canyon to solve the mystery of the Great Unconformity!
14. Principles of Radiometric Dating
Radiometric dating is a method used to determine the age of rocks and other materials based on the rate of radioactive decay. Learn about three common types of radioactive decay: alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay.
15. Effect of Erosion and Deposition on Landforms
Landforms are constantly being broken down and reformed by the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition. In this lesson, we explore chemical and physical weathering and how the face of the earth gets changed.
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Other chapters within the Holt Science Spectrum - Physical Science: Online Textbook Help course
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 1: Introduction to Science
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 2: Matter
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 3: States of Matter & Energy
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 4: Atoms & the Periodic Table
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 5: The Structure of Matter
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 6: Chemical Reactions
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 7: Solutions
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 8: Acids, Bases & Salts
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 9: Nuclear Changes
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 10: Motion
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 11: Forces
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 12: Work & Energy
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 13: Heat & Temperature
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 14: Waves
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 15: Sound & Light
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 16: Electricity
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 17: Magnetism
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 18: Communication Technology
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 19: The Solar System
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 20: The Universe
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 22: The Atmosphere
- Holt Physical Science Chapter 23: Using Natural Resources