About This Chapter
How it works:
- Find the lesson within this chapter that corresponds to what you're studying in the Science of Biology chapter of your textbook.
- Watch fun videos that cover the biology and scientific concepts you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quiz after watching each video lesson to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material, or submit a question for one of our instructors.
You'll learn all of the history topics covered in the textbook chapter, including:
- The last ice age and human migration
- Origins of the early peoples in the Americas
- The Mayans, Aztecs, and Cortes
- African cultures and the effects of the slave trade
- Greek government and democracy
- Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
- Rise and fall of the Roman Empire
- Feudalism and manors
- The Great Crusades
- Europe and the Black Death
- Renaissance Europe
- The printing press changes the world
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1. The Last Ice Age: Thawing Ice and New Human Opportunities
What is an ice age? How did the latest period of glaciation form our species? How has the abundance of this latest period of interglaciation changed our behavior? Watch this lesson to find out.
2. Native American History: Origins of Early People in the Americas
Because the first humans and civilizations got their start in Africa and the Middle East, historians and anthropologists have had to figure out how Native Americans got to the Americas. In this lesson we look at the three prevailing theories of the earliest migration to the New World.
3. Mesoamerican Civilizations: The Olmecs to Cortes
This lesson focuses on the early cultures of Mesoamerica. The Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs developed great civilizations in Mesoamerica over millennia. Then, after all of this development and the building of a great empire, the Aztec were quickly defeated by Hernando Cortes.
4. The Inca Civilization and Pizarro: Pre-Columbian South America
The Incan Empire was an amazing empire of the early Americas. Their accomplishments rival those of many other great empires, but they were defeated by the Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro in only a few years.
5. Pre-Columbian Civilization: North American Indians Before Europeans
Watch this video for an overview of the cultural groups of Native Americans as they lived at the time of first contact with Europeans. Some of these groupings, like the tribes of the plains, changed so much due to the addition of European influences, such as horses, that there is only conjecture as to how exactly they lived before European contact.
6. African Cultures: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
In this lesson, we learn about the three premier empires of the pre-colonial period in West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, who all profited tremendously from the trans-Saharan gold trade.
7. Greek City-States and Governments
This is a lecture about Greek city states. It begins with an examination of the influence geography had on Greek politics, by comparing Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia. This is followed by a loose characterization of Greek poleis in general, with specific attention paid to constitutions, colonialism and competition.
8. Athenian Democracy: Solon and Cleisthenes
Although Athens is remembered for creating the first democracy, it took many years and multiple leaders to develop the system we think of today. Learn about who took control, what reforms they made and how the people revolted against the old system.
9. Socrates: Life, Death and Philosophy
This lecture is a whirlwind tour through the life of Socrates. It begins with an explanation of the Socratic problem, followed by an examination of his philosophy. The lecture ends with a summary of Socrates' legacy.
10. Platonic Idealism: Plato and His Influence
This lecture examines the philosophy and legacy of Plato. It covers the Allegory of the Cave, the Realm of Forms and Plato's views on politics and the soul. Finally, it shows Plato's enduring legacy in modern science.
11. Aristotelian Logic: Aristotle's Central Concepts and Influence
This lesson will explore the life of the famous philosopher Aristotle. It will highlight his life in Northern Greece and Athens, as well as his interactions with Alexander the Great. It will also explain the main tenants of Aristotelian logic.
12. The Political Structure of the Roman Republic
This lesson explains the political structure of the Roman Republic by highlighting the importance of social class within the system. It also explains the roles and positions of the Consuls, the Senate, and the Assembly.
13. Order From Chaos: Establishing Stability through Feudal Ties and Manors
This lesson will explore the impact of feudalism on European society. While explaining the system of feudalism, it will highlight how it offered protection and stability to Europe, specifically after the 5th century fall of Rome.
14. The Great Crusades: History and Timeline
This lesson examines the utter failure of the later crusades. We look at some of the factors that led to this failure. We then have a glimpse at each of the major crusades abroad, as well as the political and heretical crusades in Europe.
15. The Little Ice Age and the Black Death
Fourteenth century Europe experienced a devastating population decline due to a climate cooling, famine, and the plague. This lesson explores how these factors occurred and their impact on Europe.
16. The Renaissance Timeline: Events Overview
In this lesson, we will build an outline of the historical events which flow together to form the time periods of the Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Discovery, and the Elizabethan era.
17. Renaissance Art: Artists, Paintings, Sculptures & Architecture
In this lesson, we will be discussing Renaissance art, focusing primarily on paintings, sculptures, and architecture. We will also be learning how humanism affected the art of this time period.
18. How the Printing Press Changed the World
When you think of inventions that changed the world, you may think of farming tools or the wheel, or even the Internet. However, few can truly compare to the humble printing press.
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Other chapters within the Holt United States History: Online Textbook Help course
- Holt United States History Chapter 2: New Empires in the Americas (1400-1750)
- Holt United States History Chapter 3: The English Colonies (1605-1774)
- Holt United States History Chapter 4: The American Revolution (1774-1783)
- Holt United States History Chapter 5: Forming a Government (1777-1791)
- Holt United States History Chapter 6: Citizenship & the Constitution (1787-Present)
- Holt United States History Chapter 7: Launching the Nation (1789-1800)
- Holt United States History Chapter 8: The Jefferson Era (1800-1815)
- Holt United States History Chapter 9: A New National Identity (1812-1830)
- Holt United States History Chapter 10: The Age of Jackson (1828-1840)
- Holt United States History Chapter 11: Expanding West (1800-1855)
- Holt United States History Chapter 12: The North (1790-1860)
- Holt United States History Chapter 13: The South (1790-1860)
- Holt United States History Chapter 14: New Movements in America (1815-1850)
- Holt United States History Chapter 15: A Divided Nation (1848-1860)
- Holt United States History Chapter 16: The Civil War (1861-1865)
- Holt United States History Chapter 17: Reconstruction (1865-1877)
- Holt United States History Chapter 18: Americans Move West (1850-1890)
- Holt United States History Chapter 19: The Industrial Age (1876-1900)
- Holt United States History Chapter 20: Immigrants & Urban Life (1872-1914)
- Holt United States History Chapter 21: The Progressive Spirit of Reform (1868-1920)
- Holt United States History Chapter 22: America As a World Power (1867-1920)