About This Chapter
How Enzymes Work - Chapter Summary
This chapter can help you understand what enzymes are and why they are important in different biological processes. You will explore different types of enzymes and their substrate helpers as well as review the main functions of enzymes and what makes them so important to living cells. These lessons also explore enzyme helpers and the different ways cells control their use. When you finish this chapter, you will be able to:
- Explain why enzymes are so important in biology
- Identify specific substrates used as enzymatic helpers
- Describe the functions and interactions of the coenzymes, cofactors and prosthetic groups
- Discuss the different ways cells can control and inhibit the actions of enzymes
- Recognize the environmental conditions needed for different enzymes to function
This chapter includes short, engaging video lessons. There are also full text transcripts of these videos available for quick review. When you have finished the lessons, review what you know with targeted self-assessment quizzes. You can also use the Dashboard to keep your place within the lesson or chapter.
1. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
2. Enzyme Activity & Inhibition: Structure, Substrates, pH & Temperature
Enzymes appreciate the right working conditions. Can you blame them? We all work best in the correct environment. In this lesson, we'll learn how substrate concentration, temperature, and pH affect enzyme activity and structure.
3. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
4. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
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