About This Chapter
How Plants Grow and Reproduce - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Plant growth and reproduction processes can vary widely by the type of plant. In this series of lessons, you will learn from an experienced instructor about the life cycles of specific types of plants. Factors that influence this growth include the ability of plants to flower or seed (or not), as well as length of daylight, seasonal factors, and plant hormones. This chapter is designed to teach you:
- The concept of alternating generations in plants
- The life cycles of moss, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
- Types of plant growth and how it varies in a plant's life cycle
- The role of plant hormones in the life cycle
|Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte||Discuss the concept of alternating generations and how a gametophyte differs from a sporophyte.|
|A Moss Life Cycle: Dominant Gametophyte||Explain the life cycle of moss.|
|A Fern Life Cycle: Plant Reproduction Without Flowers or Seeds||Explain how ferns reproduce using spores.|
|A Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Reproduction of Plants with 'Naked Seeds'||Discuss the life cycle of gymnosperm plants, which produce seeds but do not flower.|
|An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction||Discuss the life cycle of angiosperm plants, including their flowers.|
|Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic, and Thigmotropic Plant Growth||Describe three kinds of plant growth.|
|Photoperiodicity: Short-day, Long-day, and Day-Neutral Plants||Describe how plants react to changing amounts of daylight.|
|Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual, and Biennial Plants||Discuss the growing cycle for three different kinds of plants.|
|Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction||Describe how hormones affect the life cycle of plants.|
1. Alternation of Generations: The Gametophyte and Sporophyte
Even though many plants seem simple, they often have very complex life cycles. We will look at how plants alternate between different life stages as well as the terms used to describe these unique points in their life cycle.
2. A Moss Life Cycle: Dominant Gametophyte
Mosses are unique because they spend most of their lives with only one set of genetic material rather than the normal two sets. We will look at this cycle and how the alternation of generations takes place in these non-vascular plants.
3. A Fern Life Cycle: Plant Reproduction Without Flowers or Seeds
Ferns are able to reproduce without using seeds. We will look at how ferns reproduce as well as the pattern of alternating between diploid and haploid life stages.
4. A Gymnosperm Life Cycle: Reproduction of Plants with 'Naked Seeds'
Some plants, such as pine trees, are able to reproduce with unprotected seeds. We will look at the major structures involved in this form of alternation of generations in gymnosperms.
5. An Angiosperm Life Cycle: Flowering Plant Reproduction
When you think of how plants reproduce, you probably think of flowers. We will look at how flowering plants use specialized reproductive structures to complete an alternation of generations life cycle.
6. Tropisms: Phototropic, Geotropic and Thigmotropic Plant Growth
Animals aren't the only things that can respond to the environment. While plants may seem inanimate at times, they, too, can respond to the environment in order to better survive.
7. Photoperiodicity: Short-day, Long-day and Day-Neutral Plants
Ever wonder why some plants will bloom in the spring but others in the summer? The length of daylight can influence when a flower will bloom. We will look at how the amount of sunlight regulates when plants produce flowers.
8. Seasonal Growth Cycles: Perennial, Annual and Biennial Plants
We continue to grow and change throughout our entire lives, living through many seasons and years. Plants have different patterns of growth and development regarding seasons, which we will look at in this lesson.
9. Plant Hormones: Chemical Control of Growth and Reproduction
We most often think of hormones as things that control our actions and development. However, even plants have these chemicals to help regulate growth and reproduction.
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Other chapters within the Life Science: Middle School course
- Introduction to Life Science
- Characteristics & Chemicals of Life
- The Parts of Cells
- DNA Replication & Mutation
- Cell Division & the Cell Cycle
- How Living Organisms Get Energy
- Classification of Organisms
- The Origin & History of Life On Earth
- Genetics & Hereditary Traits
- Genetic Engineering Basics
- Natural Selection & Evolution in Life Science
- Microbiology & Types of Microbes
- Introduction to Ecosystems
- Types of Ecosystems
- Changing Ecosystems
- Birds & Mammals
- Animal Behavior & Communication
- Mammal Reproduction & Development
- The Respiratory System
- The Cardiovascular System
- The Blood Vessels
- The Digestive System
- The Urinary & Endocrine Systems
- The Brain & Nervous System
- The Muscular System
- The Skeletal System & Connective Tissue
- Sight, Hearing & Other Senses
- Health Issues & Concerns
- Plant Biology & Structure
- Environmental Concerns
- Natural Resources
- Earth History & Geologic Time