Ch 2: How Scientists Think and Work: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The How Scientists Think and Work chapter of this Intro to Astronomy Help and Review course is the simplest way to master how scientists think and work. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the topic.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering intro to astronomy material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn the topic. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding how scientists think and work
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about how scientists think and work
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the How Scientists Think and Work chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the How Scientists Think and Work chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any How Scientists Think and Work question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any Web-ready device.

Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a How Scientists Think and Work unit of a standard Intro to Astronomy course. Topics covered include:

  • The nature of science
  • Occam's razor as a scientific principle
  • The scientific method
  • Scientific research defined
  • Types of research methods
  • Formulating the research hypothesis and null hypothesis
  • Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
  • Research variables: dependent, independent, control, extraneous and moderator

9 Lessons in Chapter 2: How Scientists Think and Work: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Nature of Science

1. The Nature of Science

Science can be defined as the accumulation of knowledge and the study of all the phenomena in the universe. Learn about the nature of science, the difference between science, dogma, and pseudoscience, and the definition of hypothesis, theory, and law.

Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle

2. Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle

Occam's razor as a scientific principle states that the simplest explanation is the one that is mostly likely correct. Learn about Occam's razor, how it applies to conspiracy theories, a life example of Occam's razor, and a scientific example of Occam's razor.

The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples

3. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples

The scientific method is a set of principles and procedures followed to gain knowledge through making questions and observations, performing experiments, and formulating and testing a hypothesis. Explore the key elements and real-life applications of the scientific method.

What is Scientific Research?

4. What is Scientific Research?

Scientific research involves using the scientific method to study a phenomenon systematically allowing researchers to draw reliable conclusions. Learn about the nature of scientific research and explore some components of scientific research, including the scientific method, peer review, and statistical significance.

What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods?

5. What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods?

Scientists can use different research methods depending on what they consider best to address what they are studying. Explore some research methods, including observation, correlation, and experimentation, as well as examples of each kind of methodology.

Formulating the Research Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis

6. Formulating the Research Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis

Generally, research projects are designed to test a hypothesis, which is a statement of the condition to be studied or the question to be answered. Research projects actually prove or disprove a null hypothesis, which states the opposite of the hypothesis. Learn how to formulate the research hypothesis and null hypothesis, including research questions and if/then statements, and understand the concept of invalid hypothesis.

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

7. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

Inductive reasoning makes use of evidence to come to a conclusion whereas deductive reasoning finds evidence to support a conclusion. Study the differences and examples of inductive and deductive reasoning that are used to understand science.

Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

8. Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

In experimental research, factors that have any varying quality or quantity are known as a Variable. Discover the uses of Independent, Dependent, Control, Extraneous, and Moderator variables in conducting research.

Sir John Herschel: Biography & Photography

9. Sir John Herschel: Biography & Photography

Explore the life and work of Sir John Herschel, a British scientist who contributed to the art of color photography. Learn about relations between astronomy, chemistry, photography, and printing.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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More Exams
There are even more practice exams available in How Scientists Think and Work: Help and Review.

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