About This Chapter
Below is a sample breakdown of the How Scientists Think & Work chapter into a 5-day school week. Based on the pace of your course, you may need to adapt the lesson plan to fit your needs.
|Day||Topics||Key Terms and Concepts Covered|
|Monday|| Nature of science|
| How to determine what is real science, definition and examples of pseudoscience, distinguish between a theory and a hypothesis|
Definition of research, peer review, published studies, dogma, objectivity
|Tuesday|| The scientific method|
Types of research methods
|Key elements for any scientific process: questions, hypotheses, experiments, observations, analyses and conclusions|
The three types of research methodologies: correlational, observational and experimental and when each is best used
|Wednesday|| Research variables|
Formulating the research hypothesis and null hypothesis
|Dependent and independent variables, extraneous variables, control variables, confounding variables and moderator variables|
How to turn a question into a research hypothesis, definition of a null hypothesis, invalid hypothesis
|Thursday||Inductive and deductive reasoning||Definition of inductive and deductive reasoning, how they differ, examples of each|
|Friday||Occam's razor||Explanation of the principle of Occam's razor, with real life and scientific examples|
1. The Nature of Science
This lesson will explore the basic nature of science. It will distinguish science from pseudoscience and hypothesis from theory and natural law; it will give plenty of examples of each.
2. What is Scientific Research?
This lesson will discuss important components of scientific research, including the scientific method, peer review, statistical significance, and more!
3. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples
The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.
4. What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods?
This lesson will go over some important research methods, including observation, correlation, and experimentation, as well as examples of each type of methodology.
5. Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator
This lesson explores the terminology of experimental design. What are variables? How do they influence each other? Is it possible that you are seeing connections that don't actually exist?
6. Formulating the Research Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis
After figuring out what you want to study, what is the next step in designing a research experiment? You, the researcher, write a hypothesis and null hypothesis. This lesson explores the process and terminology used in writing a hypothesis and null hypothesis.
7. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples
This lesson explores the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in the form of psychological experiments. In addition to defining these terms, the lesson gives examples to explain how this reasoning is applied.
8. Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle
This lesson will explain the principle of Occam's razor, why the word razor is a part of it, and a couple of examples of its application: one from daily life and another one from science.
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