About This Chapter
Human Anatomy: Cardiology, Nephrology and Immunology - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, human anatomy topics related to nephrology, immunology and cardiology are presented. These lessons outline the history of human blood types and the functions and types of blood cells. You'll also study the way in which blood travels through the body and the anatomy of the heart. After completing this chapter, you should be ready to:
- Detail the anatomy and function of the ventricle
- Define the endoderm layer
- Outline the function and structure of the kidneys
- Explain what the supportive structures of the nephron do
- Discuss the function of the renal tubule
- Identify the processes involved in excretion and osmoregulation
- Describe the function of monocytes
- Detail the structure and components of white blood cells
Our learning materials have been designed to make even challenging topics enjoyable and easy to tackle. Quickly jump to any topic in a video lesson using the video tabs feature in the Timeline. We've given you flexible study options by making these tools accessible on your mobile device 24 hours a day. An instructor is available to offer assistance if you struggle with any of the subjects discussed here.
1. Human Blood Types: Discovery & History
You've probably heard about someone having a specific blood type, like A+. But how were the different blood types discovered? What importance does blood type have for humans? Find out more about the history of blood types in this lesson.
2. What Are Blood Cells? - Functions & Types
There are three different types of blood cells circulating through the bloodstream. Learn about the function of each of the three types of blood cells, and test your knowledge by taking the quiz.
3. How Blood Travels Throughout the Body
This lesson is going to cover the different blood vessels that carry blood throughout the body. The route and changes in blood pressure will also be discussed. A short quiz will follow.
4. Anatomy of the Heart: Blood Flow and Parts
In this lesson, you will take a look inside the heart and identify the chambers and one-way valves that make up this vital organ. You will also follow along as we trace the flow of blood through the heart chambers.
5. Ventricle: Function & Anatomy
In this lesson, we'll discuss the chambers of the heart that really drive blood flow - the ventricles. Where are they? What do they do? And what happens when something goes wrong with them?
6. Endoderm Layer: Definition & Derivatives
Do you know what the lungs and intestines have in common? They both actually develop from the same tissue layer in an embryo. Learn what other structures are also derived from this same embryonic layer in this lesson.
7. Kidneys: Structure & Function
Your kidneys don't get a lot of attention, but they are important to your health. Learn about your kidneys and the jobs they do, like filtering wastes out of your blood, balancing fluids, adjusting your blood pressure and helping to make blood cells.
8. Supportive Structures of the Nephron: Functions and Definitions
In this lesson, you'll learn about the supportive structures of the nephron, including the juxtaglomerular apparatus, juxtaglomerular cells, macula densa, and mesangial cells. You'll also explore enzymes and hormones like renin and erythropoietin and learn why they are so important to the body.
9. The Renal Tubule: Definition, Function & Terms
Renal tubules are essential structures in the kidneys. This lesson explores the function of the renal tubule and its parts, including the proximal and distal convoluted tubules, the loop of Henle, and the collecting duct. Learn how these components work together to absorb materials and form urine.
10. What Are Monocytes? - Definition, Function & Blood Test
In this lesson, you will learn about the white blood cells called monocytes, how they function in the immune system to fight germs and the causes of abnormal blood tests.
11. Do White Blood Cells Have Nuclei?
In this lesson, we will not only answer this question, but we will explore what a white blood cell is and the role that the nucleus plays in visually identifying each type of white blood cell.
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