About This Chapter
Human Anatomy: Cardiology, Nephrology and Immunology - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, human anatomy topics related to nephrology, immunology and cardiology are presented. These lessons outline the history of human blood types and the functions and types of blood cells. You'll also study the way in which blood travels through the body and the anatomy of the heart. After completing this chapter, you should be ready to:
- Detail the anatomy and function of the ventricle
- Define the endoderm layer
- Outline the function and structure of the kidneys
- Explain what the supportive structures of the nephron do
- Discuss the function of the renal tubule
- Identify the processes involved in excretion and osmoregulation
- Describe the function of monocytes
- Detail the structure and components of white blood cells
Our learning materials have been designed to make even challenging topics enjoyable and easy to tackle. Quickly jump to any topic in a video lesson using the video tabs feature in the Timeline. We've given you flexible study options by making these tools accessible on your mobile device 24 hours a day. An instructor is available to offer assistance if you struggle with any of the subjects discussed here.
1. Human Blood Types: Discovery & History
You've probably heard about someone having a specific blood type, like A+. But how were the different blood types discovered? What importance does blood type have for humans? Find out more about the history of blood types in this lesson.
2. What Are Blood Cells? - Functions & Types
Blood cells have many functions in the body, including transporting oxygen and neutralizing pathogens. Review an introduction to blood cells, then explore the three different types found in the body: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
3. How Blood Travels Throughout the Body
Blood travels throughout the body via a complex network of vessels. Learn the functions of blood, the different types of blood vessels, and the routes of circulation between these networks that blood follows.
4. Anatomy of the Heart: Blood Flow and Parts
The heart is a complex organ that regulates a body's blood flow. Explore the anatomy of the heart and learn about its different parts, including the four chambers and heart valves, the heartbeat, as well as the process and importance of blood flow.
5. Ventricle: Function & Anatomy
In this lesson, we'll discuss the chambers of the heart that really drive blood flow - the ventricles. Where are they? What do they do? And what happens when something goes wrong with them?
6. Endoderm Layer: Definition & Derivatives
The endoderm layer is the innermost germ layer in an embryo that forms different organs in an animal's body. Learn about gastrulation and which organs of the body derive from the endoderm layer.
7. Kidneys: Structure & Function
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that filter the blood to remove waste, leaving only nutrients needed by the body. Learn about the structure and functions of kidneys, such as cleaning up bloodborne waste products, balancing bodily fluids, and other important functions.
8. Supportive Structures of the Nephron: Functions and Definitions
Some cells in the kidneys play roles in regulating blood pressure and kidney blood flow. Explore the functions of the supportive structures of the nephron, like the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus and its JG, macula densa, and mesangial cells.
9. The Renal Tubule: Definition, Function & Terms
The kidneys include renal tubules, which are essential structures that help the kidneys function properly. Learn the definition of the renal tubule and explore its functions, including the role of PTH in regulating calcium. Understand terms important to the renal tubule, including ultrafiltrate, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, connecting tubule, the collecting duct and its hormones, and distal nephron and its hormones.
10. What Are Monocytes? - Definition, Function & Blood Test
One of the key white blood cell types which fights off bacteria, viruses, and fungi is the Monocyte. Learn features and functions of this cell and how blood tests can inform doctors about stress based on the levels of monocytes in the body.
11. Do White Blood Cells Have Nuclei?
In this lesson, we will not only answer this question, but we will explore what a white blood cell is and the role that the nucleus plays in visually identifying each type of white blood cell.
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- Overview of Basic Trigonometry
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