About This Chapter
Human Anatomy and Physiology Overview - Chapter Summary
Lessons in this anatomy and physiology chapter can introduce you to human body systems and organs. Start by identifying the basic relationship between components of the skeletal and muscular systems, and learn how to tell the difference between voluntary, involuntary, cardiac and smooth muscles. You can also examine the pulmonary and systemic circuits making up the circulatory system and discover what part the kidneys and liver play in filtering blood, modifying toxic substances and removing waste.
Next up are lessons covering the types of neurons and receptors found in the central and peripheral nervous systems and their role in sensing and responding to stimuli. You can also take a closer look at the brain's hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, olfactory bulbs and cerebellum. The temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital lobes making up the cerebral cortex are covered as well. Wrap up your study by learning about the layers and functions of human skin and discovering how the endocrine system's glands and hormones help us maintain homeostasis. You can also examine the processes by which the male and female reproductive organs produce gametes. Some of the body systems covered in this chapter are listed below:
- Skeletal and muscular system
- Circulatory system
- Digestive system
- Excretory system
- Nervous system
- Endocrine system
- Reproductive system
Lessons are presented by experienced, professional educators. The chapter on human anatomy and physiology includes numerous video lessons and matching self-assessment quizzes. The order in which you complete each lesson is up to you, but you might find that taking the quiz, watching the video and then taking the quiz again will show you exactly which areas you need to work on.
1. Skeletal System and Muscular System
Do you know how many bones are in the human body? Check out this video lesson to uncover the answer, as well as understand the role and importance of the skeletal and muscular systems.
2. The Human Circulatory System: Parts and Functions
In this lesson, you will take a ride on the transportation system of the body called the circulatory system and its two parts: the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. Take a look inside and see how every inch of your body receives the oxygen and nutrients it needs.
3. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
4. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
5. Excretory System
Each year in the U.S., close to 400,000 people with kidney failure undergo dialysis treatment in order to remove waste, remove excess fluid and restore electrolyte balance. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.
6. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
7. Functions of the Nervous System
In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!
8. Brain Structures and Functions Part I
The brain's complexity can often be difficult to understand because it serves so many important functions. In this lesson, you'll get a little help from Nrr, the alien biologist, who will guide you through understanding the structure and functions of the human brain.
9. The Cerebral Cortex: Brain Structures and Functions Part II
Check out this video lesson to learn about the four lobes of the human brain - the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. You'll learn about the functions and processes of each region.
10. Human Skin: Layers, Function & Structure
This lesson will cover the three main layers of your skin, which includes the epidermis, dermis, and subcutis. In addition, we'll learn about other skin cells and tissue, such as adipose tissue, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Merkel's cells.
11. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System
This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.
12. The Kidney: Major Divisions & Structures
Learn about the major layers of the kidneys, like the renal cortex and renal medulla. Find out about the inner parts of the kidneys, including the renal papilla, renal pelvis, renal pyramid, and renal hilum.
13. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
14. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
15. Cancellous Bone: Definition, Structure & Function
In your body, you have only two types of bone tissue: cortical and cancellous bone. In this lesson, we will learn about the structure and function of cancellous bone, which plays a crucial role in producing blood cells and stem cells and is the primary tissue affected by osteoporosis.
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Other chapters within the FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 (004): Test Practice & Study Guide course
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- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Gas Laws
- Properties of Waves
- Electricity and Magnetic Force
- Basics of Thermodynamics
- The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Electric Units
- Plate Tectonics and Dating Methods
- Cycles and Layers of the Earth
- Space Science
- Cell Biology
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Chemical Reactions of Metabolism
- Overview of Cell Division
- Biology of Genetics
- Plant Biology Overview
- Biological Evolution & Natural Selection
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Microbiology Overview
- Ecology & Florida
- Analyzing Scientific Data
- Scientific Principles
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