About This Chapter
Human Anatomy - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The human body is made up of muscles, bones, nerves and organs. Within the human body there are complex systems that allow you do everything, from being able to move your arm how you want to ensuring that you keep breathing. You will learn about each part of the human body in these lessons. Here's a portion of what you will learn:
- The anatomy and function of the skeletal system and the muscular system, including muscle contraction and the major muscle groups
- The function of the nervous system and its parts, such as sensory organs, neurons and thermo receptors, and the structure and function of the brain
- The parts of the circulatory system, including the heart and red blood cells
- Types of immunity - innate and acquired
- The structure and function of the lymphatic system
- Homeostasis and temperature regulation in the body
|Skeletal System and Muscular System||Explore the skeleton and muscles of the body, including looks at voluntary muscles, involuntary muscles, cardiac muscle cells and striations.|
|The Anatomy of the Skeletal System: Axial Skeleton||Take a look at the axial skeleton and examine the cranium, mandible, vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx, ribs and sternum.|
|The Anatomy of the Skeletal System: Appendicular Skeleton||Study the ulna, radius, femur, tibia and fibula.|
|Muscle Contraction||Analyze muscle contractions through studying topics such as actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin and calcium.|
|Muscular System: Muscle Attachments, Origins, and Insertions||Learn more about how muscles are attached in the body.|
|Muscular System: Major Muscle Groups of the Appendages||Find out all about the biceps, triceps, hamstrings, quads, gastrocnemius and soleus.|
|Muscular System: Major Muscle Groups of the Abdomen and Back||Explore the abdomen and back to learn about the placement and action of the major muscles in these areas of the body.|
|Functions of the Nervous System||Discover how the nervous systems works.|
|The Structure and Function of Neurons||Explore neurons and learn about dendrites, axons, polarized, depolarized, synapse and neurotransmitters.|
|The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems||Examine how the central and peripheral nervous systems work through discovering concepts like sensory neurons, motor neurons, photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and interneurons.|
|The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems||Take a look at this area of the nervous system with discussions on topics like adrenal glands and autonomic nervous system.|
|Brain Structures and Functions Part I||Dig into the construction of the brain and learn about the brain stem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, olfactory, bulb and cerebellum.|
|The Cerebral Cortex: Brain Structures and Functions Part II||Explore the cerebral cortex and learn about the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe.|
|Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System||Find out how the pharynx, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli work in the respiratory system.|
|Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems||Discover the different circulatory systems in the body, such as the gastrovascular cavity, epithelial layer, sinuses and heart.|
|Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System||Study the vascular system, arteries, veins, lymph nodes and capillaries.|
|Circulatory System III: The Heart||Take a deeper look at the heart to see how it functions.|
|Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells||Learn more about the red blood cells, anemia and hemoglobin.|
|Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium||Study the organs, epithelial tissues, basement membranes and villi.|
|Connective Tissue||Analyze the connective tissues in the body and learn about collagen, fibroblasts, elastin and cartilage.|
|Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract||Travel through the upper gastrointestinal tract and look at the esophagus, epiglottis and pyloric sphincter.|
|Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract||Explore the body and study bile salts, lipase, villi, peristalsis and the duodenum, large intestine and rectum.|
|Excretory System||Find out about the process of removing waste from the body.|
|Innate Immunity: Inflammation, Neutrophils & Natural Killer Cells||Find out how the body protects itself from illness and diseases.|
|Acquired Immunity: T Cells, B Cells and Antibodies||Discover how the body builds immunity to illness and disease.|
|The Structure and Function of the Lymphatic System||Examine how the lymphatic system functions and what diseases can affect it.|
|Integumentary System||Learn how the integumentary system works, including discussion of the epidermis, melanin, keratin, hair and glands.|
|Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans||Analyze how the body regulates its temperature.|
1. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
2. Types of Connective Tissue
In this lesson, you'll learn about the various types of connective tissues in the body. These tissues include bone, fat, cartilage and blood. They form the framework of the body, support organs and much, much more!
3. Skeletal System and Muscular System
Do you know how many bones are in the human body? Check out this video lesson to uncover the answer, as well as understand the role and importance of the skeletal and muscular systems.
4. Axial Skeleton: Functions and Anatomy
Did you know you have two skeletons? Okay, maybe not two full skeletons, but you have two different types of skeletons: the axial and the appendicular skeletons. Learn about the functions and parts of the axial skeleton in this lesson.
5. Appendicular Skeleton: Functions and Anatomy
Without your skeleton, what would you be? Pretty much just a lump of muscle and tissue, right? Learn about the parts of the skeleton responsible for movement in this lesson on the appendicular skeleton.
6. Muscle Contraction: Actin and Myosin Bonding
Muscles contract through the action of two proteins called actin and myosin. In this lesson, you'll learn how actin and myosin filaments, in concert with regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin, control your voluntary movements.
7. What Is the Muscular System? - Function & How Muscles Work in Groups
Ever feel overwhelmed when you look at all those muscles in your textbooks? Well, if you do, then maybe learning a little about their anatomy and organization and how they work together will help you sort through it all. In this lesson, learn about the muscle itself and how it works with others to help the muscular system function.
8. Muscular Function and Anatomy of the Arms: Major Muscle Groups
Learning all the muscles of the muscle system can be a pretty daunting task, but we will try and help you by focusing just on the major muscles of the arm in this lesson on arm anatomy.
9. Muscular Function and Anatomy of the Upper Leg
Our legs allow us to do everything from walking to dancing to just standing still. All these actions involve the function of many muscles. Learn about the muscles above the knee in this lesson covering muscles of the hip, thigh, and leg.
10. Muscular Function and Anatomy of the Lower Leg and Foot
Did you know that most of the muscles that control the movement of your foot are actually located in your lower leg? Learn about the muscles below the knee that control the feet and toes in this lesson.
11. Function & Anatomy of the Muscles of the Chest and Abdomen
Did you know your body has a trunk? No, not like an elephant's trunk. Your trunk encompasses the chest, back and abdomen. In this lesson you'll learn about some of the main muscles of the chest and abdomen.
12. Function & Anatomy of the Muscles of the Face, Neck & Back
Do you know how many muscles are in your face? Or what animal has the largest tongue? Learn the answer to these questions and more in this lesson on the muscle anatomy of the face, neck and back.
13. Homologous Structures: Comparison of Body Structures Across Species
Did you know that you share the same structures as a monkey? Okay, you may have guessed that, but what about a whale or a bat? Learn about similarities in bone and muscle structure in this lesson that covers body shape across species.
14. The Integumentary System: The Epidermal Layer
Do you know what the largest organ in your body is? How about the layers of your skin? Or where skin cancer comes from? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this lesson on the integumentary system.
15. The Integumentary System: The Dermal Layer
Did you know that some people don't feel pain? Or that some always feel as if their skin is on fire? Learn about the causes of these diseases and the anatomy of the skin they affect in this lesson- the dermal layer of the skin.
16. The Integumentary System Accessory Structures: Hair
Your skin does more than just cover your body; it has a number of structures like hair and sweat glands. Learn more about the hair that protects your body in this lesson.
17. The Integumentary System Accessory Structures: Nails
Did you know that your skin, hair, and nails are all made out of the same protein? Learn more about the structure and function of your nails in this lesson.
18. The Integumentary System Accessory Structures: Glands
Ever wonder how pimples appear? Is it simply a blocked pore or maybe a hair follicle? Is bacteria involved? Learn about the glands that cause acne and the glands that help you cool off in this lesson on sebaceous and sweat glands of the integumentary system.
19. Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems
From cnidarians to humans, all animals need a circulatory system to absorb nutrients and get rid of waste. Find out why different kinds of animals have different systems, and see what a closed circulatory system and indoor plumbing have in common.
20. Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System
In this lesson, learn all about the operation of the human vascular system. What are the different types of blood vessels? How does blood flow through the human body? How does the system adapt to your body changing?
21. Circulatory System III: The Heart
What purpose does the heart serve? And how do different types of hearts function? In this lesson, you'll learn about two, three and four-chambered hearts.
22. Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells
Why don't mature red blood cells have nuclei or mitochondria, and how do these guys squeeze through capillaries? While learning about the brief but glorious lives of red blood cells, you'll also see which characteristics help them transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to other cells.
23. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System
Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Believe it or not, that's how much surface area an active, healthy human needs to ensure that the body gets plenty of oxygen.
24. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
25. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
26. Excretory System
Each year in the U.S., close to 400,000 people with kidney failure undergo dialysis treatment in order to remove waste, remove excess fluid and restore electrolyte balance. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.
27. Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation in Humans
Do you wonder how your body is able to maintain a consistent temperature? Have you ever questioned why you get goosebumps when you're cold? This lesson will introduce you to homeostasis and answer your questions about body temperature regulation and reactions, like goosebumps.
28. Functions of the Nervous System
In this lesson, we'll watch Timmy as he plays in his backyard. Watch what happens when he tries to catch a butterfly, hears a mean dog bark, and scrapes his knee. All of Timmy's reactions are tied to his nervous system. For a full explanation of what goes on in the human nervous system, check out the video!
29. The Structure and Function of Neurons
In this video lesson, you'll learn about neurons, which are specialized cells in the nervous system. Check out how far neurons can send signals throughout the body and how depolarization is much like 'the wave' at a football game.
30. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
31. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!
32. Brain Structures and Functions Part I
The brain's complexity can often be difficult to understand because it serves so many important functions. In this lesson, you'll get a little help from Nrr, the alien biologist, who will guide you through understanding the structure and functions of the human brain.
33. The Cerebral Cortex: Brain Structures and Functions Part II
Check out this video lesson to learn about the four lobes of the human brain - the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. You'll learn about the functions and processes of each region.
34. Innate Immunity: Inflammation, Neutrophils & Natural Killer Cells
You might already know how your body handles known infectious agents but how about unknown? Watch this video to explore your innate immune system - your body's defense against new bacteria and viruses.
35. Acquired Immunity: T Cells, B Cells and Antibodies
Have you ever wondered why some people don't ever seem to get sick? These people likely have an acquired immunity. Learn more about the immune system and how exposure to an illness one time can help your body to prevent that illness from ever occurring again.
36. Functions of the Lymphatic System
In this lesson, you will learn about the lymphatic system and the vital role it plays in keeping the cardiovascular system working. You'll discover how the lymphatic system (with its lymphatic vessels and capillaries) quietly works in the background to return leaked fluids back to the blood.
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Other chapters within the CLEP Natural Sciences: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Atomic Structure
- Properties of Matter
- Fundamentals of Thermodynamics
- Waves, Sound, and Light
- The Universe
- Atmospheric Science
- Biology of the Cell
- Biochemistry Foundations
- Chemical Nature of the Gene
- Cell Processes
- Introduction to Plant Biology
- Animal Reproduction, Growth and Development
- Evolution: Theories and Principles
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Phylogeny and the Classification of Organisms
- Human and Social Biology