About This Chapter
Human Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood - Chapter Summary
So much development occurs during early childhood, particularly during infancy and toddlerhood. These lessons help you expand your understanding of the physical, social, and mental development that occurs from birth all the way through about two years of age. We understand that there is quite a large amount of information to cover here, which is why our instructors strive to make everything more manageable by building highly-focused lessons. We break things up so you can review everything in short lessons, one major topic at a time. Each of our lessons can be viewed independently, if you only need to review a few topics, but you can also complete all the lessons available to build a deeper understanding. Once you make your way through this chapter, you'll be able to:
- Describe the psychology principles of growth
- Outline brain, sensory, and motor development from ages 0-2
- Evaluate the first two years of sleep-wake patterns
- Figure out the perceptual development of infants with the five senses
- Establish prevention strategies and understand risk factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
- Identify child attention habits
- Investigate object permanence and the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development
- Determine the information, language learning, and memory processing of infants
- Review Jerome Kagan's temperament research on toddlers
- Learn about George Herbert Mead's stages of development and the self
- Point out the impact of neglect and abuse on growth and development
- Examine day care benefits and drawbacks, outcomes, and characteristics
- Offer examples of emotional expression during ages 0-2
1. Defining the Principles of Growth in Psychology
Everyone grows and changes throughout life. But how does this development occur? In this lesson, we'll look at the two main principles of growth and development: the Cephalocaudal Principle and the Proximodistal Principle.
2. Motor, Sensory & Brain Development in the First Two Years of Life
Babies grow and change so much in the first two years of life, and many of those changes are directly tied to the brain and its key functions. In this lesson, we'll look at brain, motor and sensory development in infants.
3. Sleep-Wake Patterns in the First Two Years
As every new parent knows, babies sleep differently than adults do. In this lesson, we'll look at two key changes in sleep patterns that develop in the first two years of life, the volume and type of sleep.
4. Infant Perceptual Development and the Five Senses
What is habituation and how does it affect perceptual development in an infant? Learn the answer to this question and more as this lesson explores sensory development in infants.
5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Risk Factors & Prevention
The leading cause of death for children under the age of one is a large mystery to many people. In this lesson, we'll look closer at Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, including risk factors and prevention measures.
6. Habituation: Attention in Children
As infants grow, they learn how to pay attention to the things that are most important. In this lesson, we'll look at the attentional processes of infants, including the key concepts of habituation and dishabituation.
7. Infant Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor Stage & Object Permanence
Jean Piaget's theory of development includes the sensorimotor stage, which happens in the first two years of life. In this lesson, we'll look at some of the important cognitive developments that occur during that stage.
8. Memory and Information Processing in Infants
The way adults think is vastly different from the way that children think. In this lesson, we'll explore cognitive development and look at how infants begin to think like adults, including the concepts of information processing and memory.
9. Language Learning in Infants and Toddlers
Language development is a long process, and there are many types of speech that babies take part in. This lesson explores language development and some key types of speech, including child-directed speech, syncretic speech, and telegraphic speech.
10. Jerome Kagan's Research on Temperament in Toddlers
Why are some people outgoing while others are shy? That's a key question that psychologist Jerome Kagan addressed in his studies on temperament. Watch this video for more information on Kagan's research on temperament in toddlers.
11. George Herbert Mead's Stages of Self and Development in Toddlers
When a baby is first born, he doesn't seem to have a sense of who he is, but that changes as he grows. In this lesson, we'll look at George Herbert Mead's research on how people develop a sense of self in the first few years of life.
12. The Impact of Abuse and Neglect on Child Growth & Development
A healthy family relationship can contribute positively to the growth and development of a child. Unfortunately, unhealthy and abusive relationships do occur. This lesson will describe characteristics of abusers and the impact of abuse on a child's growth and development.
13. The Pros & Cons of Day Care: Characteristics & Outcomes
Parents have many options for child care, including sending the child to day care. Watch this video to find out some of the advantages and disadvantages of sending a child to day care.
14. Emotional Expression in the First Two Years of Life
In the first two years of life, a baby goes through many big changes. In this lesson, we'll look at some of the emotional changes that occur in infants, including important milestones in socioemotional development.
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Other chapters within the Psychology 107: Life Span Developmental Psychology course
- Intro to Human Development
- Research Methods for Human Development
- Foundations of Human Development
- Genetic Influences in Human Development
- Overview of Prenatal Development
- Childbirth and the Neonatal Period
- Early Childhood Physical and Cognitive Development
- Early Childhood Psychosocial Development
- Human Development in Middle Childhood
- Adolescent Physical and Sexual Development
- Adolescent Psychosocial Development
- Early Adulthood Physical and Cognitive Development
- Early Adulthood Psychosocial Development
- Middle Adulthood Physical and Cognitive Development
- Middle Adulthood Psychosocial Development
- Late Adulthood Physical Development
- Late Adulthood Psychosocial and Cognitive Development
- Stages and Psychological Impact of Death and Dying
- Studying for Psychology 107