Ch 31: Human Reproductive Systems

About This Chapter

Watch online video lessons to learn about the uterine cycle, HPG axis, spermatogenesis, and more. Each lesson is accompanied by a short multiple-choice quiz to help check your understanding of these reproductive systems topics.

Human Reproductive Systems - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

This chapter includes several video lessons describing male and female reproductive anatomy. You can discover the organs and tissues where sperm and ova are produced, the processes involved in transporting and maturing these gametes, and the hormones responsible for triggering reproductive cycles. At the end of this chapter, you should be able to identify:

  • Functions of male and female reproductive organs
  • Roles of GnRH and gonadotropin in men and women
  • Process involved in spermatogenesis
  • Phases of the ovarian and uterine cycles

Video Objective
Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy Discusses the roles of the testes, epididymis, ductus differens, and urethra in producing, maturing, and transporting sperm.
Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions Describes the processes by which the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands produce semen.
Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams Explains how Leydig cells, rete testes, and seminiferous tubules facilitate spermatogenesis.
Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy Shows how the anatomical structures of the scrotum and penis are related to sperm production and delivery.
Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice Outlines sperm's path through the testes and ductus deferens to the accessory glands, prostate, and urethra.
The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction Explains how the hypothalamus secretes the GnRH needed to trigger the production of gonadotropins, testosterone, and sperm.
Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy Discusses the roles of the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus in producing gametes, transporting oocytes, and protecting an embryo.
The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts Shows how the perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium remove waste from the uterus and provide nutrition for a fetus.
External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System Describes functions of the labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and glands.
HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle Illustrates the roles of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in producing the GnRH and gonadotropin that control the ovarian cycle and estrogen production.
Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause Discusses the importance of the follicular and luteal phases in reproduction and describes changes occurring to the ovarian cycle throughout a woman's lifespan.
Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle Illustrates the development of primordial follicles into primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles that release the oocyte into the ovary.
Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle Shows how the corpus luteum that forms after ovulation secretes the progesterone needed to maintain pregnancy.
The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes Describes changes in the endometrium during the menses, proliferative, and secretory phases of the uterine cycle, as well as changes to the levels of progesterone and estrogen in each stage.
The Uterine Cycle: Menses Shows how the shrinking of uterine glands and eventual deterioration of endometrial tissues results in menstruation.
The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase Explains the importance of this phase in rebuilding the functional zones of the endometrium and the uterine glands.
The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase Discusses the growth of uterine tissues, blood vessels, and glands, as well as the production of progesterone and the secretion of glycogen.
The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus Shows how hormones from the brain, pituitary gland, and ovaries control the ovarian and uterine cycles.
Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes Describes changes to the female egg as it travels from the ovary to the uterus.

19 Lessons in Chapter 31: Human Reproductive Systems
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy

1. Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy

Ever wonder what the inside of a male looks like? Find out in this lesson that explores the inner workings of the male reproductive system and the pathway that sperm takes.

Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions

2. Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions

Males require a number of different glands to aid in the production of semen. Find out more about those glands in this lesson covering the male accessory glands.

Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams

3. Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams

Ever wonder about where sperm is made? Find out in this lesson covering the function and anatomy of the male testes. We'll talk about sperm and testosterone production and how the two work together.

Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy

4. Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy

Learn about the structure and function of the external reproductive structures of the male. This includes study of the scrotal sac, the parts of the penis and the erectile tissues.

Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice

5. Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice

Follow newly created sperm as they make their way from their origin of creation, the male testes, all the way to the exit of the male reproductive tract.

The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction

6. The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction

Do you know how your body communicates? How does the brain get in touch with other parts of the body? In this lesson, you will learn about how the male's brain uses hormones to communicate to the testes as a way of regulating reproduction.

Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy

7. Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy

Ever wonder where a female produces her eggs or how they get from the ovary to the uterus? Find out in this lesson about the internal reproductive anatomy of females.

The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts

8. The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts

Learn all about the structure responsible for the development of babies in this lesson on uterine anatomy. Discover the three layers of the uterus and each layer's purpose.

External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

9. External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

We all know that men and women are different. But just how different are they? Learn a little more about the differences between men and women in this lesson on female external reproductive anatomy.

HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle

10. HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle

Everything in the female reproductive system is connected. See how the brain interacts with the ovaries during the female's ovarian cycle in this lesson covering the female HPG axis.

Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause

11. Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause

Just like the human body has to grow and mature before it is ready to reproduce the female's gamete, the egg also has to grow and mature. This lesson will introduce the process through which that occurs, the ovarian cycle.

Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

12. Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

The female gamete, the oocyte, grows and matures in a process known as the ovarian cycle. Learn about the first part of the ovarian cycle, the follicular phase, in this lesson.

Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

13. Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

Each month, the ovaries recruit and mature a subset of oocytes in preparation for ovulation. Learn what happens after ovulation occurs in the second phase of the ovarian cycle, known as the luteal phase.

The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes

14. The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes

Just like a woman's ovaries go through the monthly cycle of recruiting eggs, her uterus also goes through a monthly cycle as it prepares for the possible implantation of a fertilized egg. This lesson will introduce you to the phases and hormones of the female's uterine cycle.

The Uterine Cycle: Menses

15. The Uterine Cycle: Menses

Each month the female's uterus prepares for the potential of pregnancy. However, pregnancy doesn't occur the majority of the time. In those months, the female's uterus has to 'reset' itself for the next month. It does that during the first phase of the uterine cycle, menses.

The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase

16. The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase

A woman's body goes through many changes as it prepares for the possibility of pregnancy. Learn about how the uterus prepares for pregnancy by building up its inner lining during this lesson on the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.

The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase

17. The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase

The third (and final) phase of the uterine cycle is the secretory phase. During this phase, the uterine tissue regrowth is completed in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy and the implantation of a fertilized egg.

The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus

18. The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus

Without proper communication between the brain, ovaries and uterus, reproduction might not be as efficient. Learn about how these organs work together to ensure the body is ready for reproduction.

Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes

19. Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes

Follow the female's egg as it leaves the ovary and travels down the uterine tube on its way to the uterus - all with hopes of meeting up with a male's sperm along the way.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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