About This Chapter
Who's It For?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering respiratory system material will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about the human respiratory system. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who want to learn a broad topic in a short amount of time
- Students who are looking for easy ways to identify the most important information on the topic
- Students who have fallen behind in memorizing the parts and functions of the respiratory system.
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning human biology (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who have limited time to study for an upcoming exam
How It Works:
- Watch each video in the course to review all key topics
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with a short quiz.
- Complete your review with the Human Respiratory System chapter exam.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: The lessons in this course cover only information you need to know.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Take the Human Respiratory System chapter exam to make sure you're prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any human biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students Will Review:
This chapter summarizes the material students need to know about the respiratory system for a standard human biology course. Topics covered include:
- Gross anatomy of airways and lungs
- Functions of the pleural cavities and pleural membranes
- Autonomic regulation of breathing
- Gas exchange and transport in the respiratory system
- Mechanics of inspiration and expiration
- Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange and transport
- Gas exchange efficiency and the respiratory surface
- Pulmonary surfactant function and function testing
1. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones
The respiratory system includes the lungs as well as other organs that help to get oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood. The conducting zone of the respiratory system carries oxygen into the lungs and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. The respiratory zone is where oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of the blood.
2. Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes
Each lung is contained within a pleural cavity, the space between the outside of the lung and inside of the chest wall. Pleural membranes cover the outside of the lungs and line the inside of the chest wall. The lungs remain expanded when we breathe due to a vacuum effect within the pleural cavity.
3. How Ventilation Muscles Cause Inspiration and Expiration
What is ventilation? It includes both inspiration and expiration, the movement of air into and out of our lungs. In this lesson, learn about how the diaphragm contracts and relaxes and its impact on lung volume.
4. The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency
The respiratory membrane includes millions of alveoli with a surface area as large as a tennis court. This large respiratory surface area, combined with other factors, makes for efficient gas exchange to meet our metabolic needs.
5. Pulmonary Surfactant Function and Ventilation
Our lungs are lined with a thin layer of water. The water creates surface tension, which makes it difficult for the lungs to expand and allow for gas exchange. Pulmonary surfactant is made by our lungs and decreases the surface tension so we can breathe.
6. Gas Exchange: Diffusion & Partial Pressure Gradients
If you've ever experienced shortness of breath on top of a mountain, this lesson is for you. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of our blood by diffusion. The rate of diffusion is determined by partial pressure gradients across the respiratory membrane in our lungs. Partial pressure is a function of both concentration and atmospheric pressure.
7. Gas Transport: Oxygen and Hemoglobin
Did you know that almost all of the oxygen transported in our blood is bound to hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is loaded with oxygen in the lungs and unloaded of oxygen in the metabolizing tissues. This lesson will describe how oxygen is transported in our blood.
8. Gas Transport: Cooperative Binding of Oxygen with Hemoglobin
Our cells need oxygen. Most of the oxygen is delivered to our cells bound to hemoglobin. This lesson describes how cooperative binding of hemoglobin maximizes oxygen delivery to our metabolizing tissues.
9. Gas Transport: Effect of Temperature, pH & Metabolism
Hemoglobin carries almost all the oxygen to our metabolizing tissues. This lesson discusses physiological factors that stimulate hemoglobin to unload oxygen in our tissues. For example, temperature, carbon dioxide, pH and metabolism all influence the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
10. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well. This lesson describes how carbon dioxide is transported in our blood, how carbon dioxide is converted into a pH buffer, and how carbon dioxide helps with oxygen transport.
11. Autonomic Breathing: How Ventilation is Regulated
Did you know that our nervous system controls our breathing? This lesson describes the basic elements of the homeostatic system responsible for balancing oxygen supply with metabolic demand.
12. What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?
Pulmonary function tests are used to measure air movement into and out of the lungs. Spirometry is the most common way to measure airflow. This lesson will describe the use of spirometry to measure lung volumes and flow rates as well as how breathing disorders are diagnosed.
13. External and Internal Respiration in the Lungs: Definition & Process
This lesson explores the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide get into and out of the blood located in the lungs and in our metabolizing tissues. The partial pressure gradient for each gas determines both the direction and rate of diffusion across the respiratory membrane.
14. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System
Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Believe it or not, that's how much surface area an active, healthy human needs to ensure that the body gets plenty of oxygen.
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Other chapters within the Human Biology Study Guide course
- Introduction to Human Biology
- Human Circulatory System Study Guide
- Blood Vessels Study Guide
- Human Endocrine System Study Guide
- Skeletal System Study Guide
- Muscular System Study Guide
- Integumentary System Study Guide
- Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous Systems Study Guide
- Digestive System Study Guide
- Urinary System Study Guide
- Reproductive System Study Guide
- Human Reproduction Study Guide
- Cell Structures & Cycles Study Guide
- Human Genetics Study Guide
- Disease & Disorders Study Guide
- Disease Origins Study Guide
- Diseases & Disorders Study Guide
- Dentistry Basics Study Guide