About This Chapter
ILTS Biology: DNA Transcription & Translation - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter go over the genetic code, and they describe the ways in which DNA transcription works. Our short videos can aid in your preparation for the ILTS Biology test by exploring concepts that include:
- Cellular protein synthesis
- Transcription of messenger RNA
- Gene expression
- Transcription control in a prokaryotic cell
- Entron and exon splicing
- The genetic code
- Ribosomes and peptide bonds
- How mRNA is translated to protein
The video lessons in this study guide average about five minutes in length, and you can watch them anytime on a computer or mobile device. Lesson quizzes and a chapter exam help you evaluate your learning. A clickable timeline contains links back to specific parts of the lesson, making it easy to review topics without having to re-watch the entire video.
ILTS Biology: DNA Transcription & Translation Chapter Objectives
In Illinois, passing the ILTS Biology test is one of the requirements for becoming a certified biology teacher. The topics covered in this DNA Transcription and Translation chapter are part of the exam's Cell Biology, Heredity and Evolution subarea. All 125 questions on the ILTS exam are in multiple-choice format as are the questions on our lesson quizzes. The exam has a three-hour-and-45-minute time limit.
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. Overview of the Genetic Code
Ever wonder how so much genetic material can exist in every cell? In this lesson, we take a look at how the genetic code works, specifically with how codons signal for amino acids.
7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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