About This Chapter
Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems - Chapter Summary
By following these video lessons, you can learn to explain how the human immune system defends against pathogens. You will also encounter the following concepts during the 'Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems' chapter:
- The structure and function of antibodies
- The five classes of antibodies
- T and B cells
- Humoral immune response
- Acquired and adaptive immunity
This chapter features educational content through short video lessons that are easy to understand. We couple our lessons with supplementary quizzes that provide immediate feedback, as well as help you assess your weaknesses and strengths. You can use your quiz results to determine your preparedness to answer innate and adaptive systems questions when sitting for the MCAT's biological sciences section.
Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems Objectives
As detailed by the MCAT's innate and adaptive systems test objectives, you need to know the following when taking the biological sciences section:
- Tissues (thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen)
- Antibody molecule structure
- Inflammatory response
- The basic functions of different types of cells
- Antigen presentation
Along with the biological sciences section and the optional trial section, the MCAT also consists of verbal reasoning and physical sciences sections. Within a 70-minute time limit, you will need to complete the biological sciences section's 52 multiple-choice questions. These questions are separated between 13 individual questions and seven sets of passage-based questions. Each reading passage is assigned four to seven questions.
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
In this lesson, you will be introduced to the immune system. You'll learn about the innate and adaptive immune system, Edward Jenner, haptens and immune tolerance.
2. Innate Immunity: Inflammation, Neutrophils & Natural Killer Cells
You might already know how your body handles known infectious agents but how about unknown? Watch this video to explore your innate immune system - your body's defense against new bacteria and viruses.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will cover the process of inflammation and what your body might do after a bee sting. We'll find out the five cardinal signs of inflammation as well as anaphylactic shock, histamine and cytokines in the process.
4. Acquired Immunity: T Cells, B Cells and Antibodies
Have you ever wondered why some people don't ever seem to get sick? These people likely have an acquired immunity. Learn more about the immune system and how exposure to an illness one time can help your body to prevent that illness from ever occurring again.
5. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity.
6. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
This lesson will cover the basic but important structural components and sites of an antibody as well as their function. This includes heavy chains, light chains, variable domains, constant domains, paratopes, and epitopes.
7. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
This lesson will delve into the three main ways by which antibodies function. We're going to discuss opsonization, agglutination and neutralization. We'll also learn what the Fc region is and why it's important.
8. The Five Classes of Antibodies
This lesson will cover the five different classes, or isotypes, of antibodies. We will cover IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD, as well as their basic structure and function.
9. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
This lesson will teach you about certain white blood cells of the innate immune system. Namely, we'll learn about phagocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and NK cells.
10. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
This lesson will teach about the birth, maturation, and importance of T cells. You'll learn about T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and more!
11. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific types of B-cells, such as plasma cells and memory cells.
12. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
This lesson will cover the major anatomical barriers to infection of the innate immune system. We'll explore skin flora, gut flora, gastric acid, lysozymes, and the mucociliary apparatus.
13. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
This lesson will describe what humoral immunity is, how it is activated, what is produced, and why. Find out as we explore antigen presenting cells, MHC, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies.
14. The Complement System: Definition and Function
This lesson will cover something known as the complement system. We'll delve into the key functions of this system, including opsonization, chemotaxis, and the formation of membrane attack complexes.
15. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn what a leukocyte, granulocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil are. You'll also learn about the importance of phagocytosis and chemotaxis.
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