About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering microbiology material will benefit from taking this course. You will be able to grasp the subject matter faster, retain critical knowledge longer and earn better grades. You're in the right place if you:
- Have fallen behind in understanding the human immune and lymphatic systems, antibodies, hypersensitivity and inflammation, among other related topics.
- Need an efficient way to learn about immunology and the body's defenses against pathogens.
- Learn best with engaging auditory and visual tools.
- Struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD.
- Experience difficulty understanding your teachers.
- Missed class time and need to catch up.
- Can't access extra science learning resources at school.
How it works:
- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Immunology and the Body's Defenses against Pathogens chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Immunology and the Body's Defenses against Pathogens chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any relevant question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How do the human immune and lymphatic systems work?
- What types of cells help or hurt the immune system?
- How can I differentiate among the different kinds of immunity?
- What are the five types of antibodies, and how are they structured?
- What are the four types of hypersensitivity?
- How are blood types determined, and why can't they mix?
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
In this lesson, you will be introduced to the immune system. You'll learn about the innate and adaptive immune system, Edward Jenner, haptens and immune tolerance.
2. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
This lesson will cover the major anatomical barriers to infection of the innate immune system. We'll explore skin flora, gut flora, gastric acid, lysozymes, and the mucociliary apparatus.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will cover the process of inflammation and what your body might do after a bee sting. We'll find out the five cardinal signs of inflammation as well as anaphylactic shock, histamine and cytokines in the process.
4. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn what a leukocyte, granulocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil are. You'll also learn about the importance of phagocytosis and chemotaxis.
5. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
This lesson will teach you about certain white blood cells of the innate immune system. Namely, we'll learn about phagocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and NK cells.
6. The Complement System: Definition and Function
This lesson will cover something known as the complement system. We'll delve into the key functions of this system, including opsonization, chemotaxis, and the formation of membrane attack complexes.
7. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity.
8. The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components
This lesson will cover something known as the lymphatic system. You'll learn about bone marrow, lymph, the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and much more as we explore this critical component of your immune system.
9. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
This lesson will teach about the birth, maturation, and importance of T cells. You'll learn about T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and more!
10. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific types of B-cells, such as plasma cells and memory cells.
11. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
This lesson will describe what humoral immunity is, how it is activated, what is produced, and why. Find out as we explore antigen presenting cells, MHC, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies.
12. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
This lesson will cover the basic but important structural components and sites of an antibody as well as their function. This includes heavy chains, light chains, variable domains, constant domains, paratopes, and epitopes.
13. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
This lesson will delve into the three main ways by which antibodies function. We're going to discuss opsonization, agglutination and neutralization. We'll also learn what the Fc region is and why it's important.
14. The Five Classes of Antibodies
This lesson will cover the five different classes, or isotypes, of antibodies. We will cover IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD, as well as their basic structure and function.
15. Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions
This lesson delves into something known as type I hypersensitivity reactions. You'll find out how everything from mast cells, basophils, and IgE to histamine, bee stings, and peanut allergies all play a role in this process.
16. Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss something known as a type II hypersensitivity reaction. We will go over the principal mechanisms by which it occurs as well as the major antibodies involved. In addition, we'll cover autoimmune hemolytic anemia and myasthenia gravis.
17. Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss what a type III hypersensitivity reaction causes. It will delve into which antibodies are involved, the creation of immune complexes, the development of arthritis, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis, and much more.
18. Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
This lesson will cover type IV hypersensitivity. We'll discuss the basics of how and why it occurs, the cells involved, and the most common types of diseases and conditions that are associated with this hypersensitivity reaction.
19. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
This lesson will talk about what defines an autoimmune disease, a hypersensitivity reaction, and more. We'll also discuss Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis.
20. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
21. Lung Cancer: Stages & Survival Rate
This lesson describes the stages and survival rates of non-small cell lung cancer. All cancers are unique and these figures should be treated as approximations. A summation of key points and brief quiz are included.
22. Chain of Infection: Definition & Example
Infectious disease results from the interaction of an agent, a host, and an environment. Most of these diseases follow a typical chain of infection that ends with an infected host. Understanding the chain of infection can help with both the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
23. Helper T Cells: Definition & Function
White blood cells are important for the immune response in humans. These cells come in many forms, and each type has a particular function in the overall process of immunity. This lesson addresses one of those cell types: the helper T cell.
24. Paul Ehrlich Biography
Paul Ehrlich (1854 - 1915) was a German scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1908. His work in immunology, chemotherapy, and cell-staining techniques still inform scientists' work today. In this lesson, learn more about this colossal scientific figure.
25. What is an Antibody? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, we will explore your immune system and how it deals with invaders, such as microbes and bacteria. We will define antibodies and discuss their structure and how this relates to their function and then you can take a short quiz!
26. Tetracycline Antibiotic: Uses & Side Effects
Have you ever wondered why there are so many different antibiotics and why you're prescribed different antibiotics for different types of infections? In this lesson, you will learn when tetracycline is prescribed and potential side effects.
27. What Are Cephalosporins? - Generations, Types, Examples & Side Effects
Did you ever wonder why there were so many different types of antibiotics? In this lesson you will learn about one group of antibiotics - the cephalosporins.
28. What Is Allergic Rhinitis? - Symptoms & Treatment
After completing this lesson, you will be able to define allergic rhinitis, including its symptoms and treatment options. A short quiz follows this lesson so that you can test your knowledge.
29. What Is Anaphylaxis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
What is anaphylaxis and why do people go into shock over it? Read this lesson to learn exactly what anaphylaxis is, what causes it to happen, what the symptoms are, and how to treat it! Knowing this could save someone's life!
30. Third Line of Defense in the Body: Definition & Overview
In this lesson we'll be learning about the specific immune system, which is the third line of defense in the body against pathogens. In this lesson, we'll explore what cells are involved and how they do their jobs.
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Other chapters within the Microbiology: Help and Review course
- Biology Basics for Microbiology: Help and Review
- Microbiology Basics: Help and Review
- Bacterial Biology: Help and Review
- Microbiology Laboratory Techniques: Help and Review
- Microorganisms and the Environment: Help and Review
- The Disease Process: Help and Review
- Introduction to Viruses: Help and Review
- DNA Viruses: Help and Review
- RNA Viruses: Help and Review
- Protozoan Diseases: Help and Review
- Fungal Infections: Help and Review
- Gastrointestinal Tract Illnesses & Infections: Help & Review
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases: Help and Review
- Bloodborne Bacterial Diseases: Help and Review
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract: Help and Review
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections: Help and Review
- Antimicrobial Drugs: Help and Review
- Food and Industrial Microbiology: Help and Review
- Sterilization and Antiseptic Techniques: Help and Review