About This Chapter
Below is a sample breakdown of the Immunology and the Body's Defenses Against Pathogens chapter into a 5-day school week. Based on the pace of your course, you may need to adapt the lesson plan to fit your needs.
|Day||Topics||Key Terms and Concepts Covered|
|Monday||The immune system, anatomical barriers, inflammation and granulocytes||Immunity and the immune system, Edward Jenner; nonspecific defense mechanisms and primary defense system; general characteristics and components of inflammation; features of cell mediated immunity|
|Tuesday||Innate immune system cells, complement system, adaptive immunity, lymphatic system||Cell mediated immunity; function of the complement system; types of adaptive immunity (naturally acquired, artificially acquired, active, passive); basic structure and function of lymphatic system|
|Wednesday||T cells and B cells, humoral immune response and antibodies||Function and growth of T cells and B cells; features of the humoral immune response, antigens, antigen presentation and antigen recognition; roles and structure of antibodies|
|Thursday||Function and classes of antibodies; Type I and II hypersensitivity||Neutralization, agglutination and other functions; the classes of antibodies: isotype, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM; distinguish between different types of hypersensitivity, features and diseases of allergic reactions and cytotoxic hypersensitivity|
|Friday||Type III and IV hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases and blood types||Features and diseases of immune complex hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity; autoimmunity and hypersensitivity; ABO system, red blood cell antigens and blood groups|
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
In this lesson, you will be introduced to the immune system. You'll learn about the innate and adaptive immune system, Edward Jenner, haptens and immune tolerance.
2. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
This lesson will cover the major anatomical barriers to infection of the innate immune system. We'll explore skin flora, gut flora, gastric acid, lysozymes, and the mucociliary apparatus.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will cover the process of inflammation and what your body might do after a bee sting. We'll find out the five cardinal signs of inflammation as well as anaphylactic shock, histamine and cytokines in the process.
4. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn what a leukocyte, granulocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil are. You'll also learn about the importance of phagocytosis and chemotaxis.
5. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
This lesson will teach you about certain white blood cells of the innate immune system. Namely, we'll learn about phagocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and NK cells.
6. The Complement System: Definition and Function
This lesson will cover something known as the complement system. We'll delve into the key functions of this system, including opsonization, chemotaxis, and the formation of membrane attack complexes.
7. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity.
8. The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components
This lesson will cover something known as the lymphatic system. You'll learn about bone marrow, lymph, the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and much more as we explore this critical component of your immune system.
9. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
This lesson will teach about the birth, maturation, and importance of T cells. You'll learn about T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and more!
10. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific types of B-cells, such as plasma cells and memory cells.
11. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
This lesson will describe what humoral immunity is, how it is activated, what is produced, and why. Find out as we explore antigen presenting cells, MHC, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies.
12. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
This lesson will cover the basic but important structural components and sites of an antibody as well as their function. This includes heavy chains, light chains, variable domains, constant domains, paratopes, and epitopes.
13. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
This lesson will delve into the three main ways by which antibodies function. We're going to discuss opsonization, agglutination and neutralization. We'll also learn what the Fc region is and why it's important.
14. The Five Classes of Antibodies
This lesson will cover the five different classes, or isotypes, of antibodies. We will cover IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD, as well as their basic structure and function.
15. Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions
This lesson delves into something known as type I hypersensitivity reactions. You'll find out how everything from mast cells, basophils, and IgE to histamine, bee stings, and peanut allergies all play a role in this process.
16. Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss something known as a type II hypersensitivity reaction. We will go over the principal mechanisms by which it occurs as well as the major antibodies involved. In addition, we'll cover autoimmune hemolytic anemia and myasthenia gravis.
17. Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss what a type III hypersensitivity reaction causes. It will delve into which antibodies are involved, the creation of immune complexes, the development of arthritis, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis, and much more.
18. Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
This lesson will cover type IV hypersensitivity. We'll discuss the basics of how and why it occurs, the cells involved, and the most common types of diseases and conditions that are associated with this hypersensitivity reaction.
19. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
This lesson will talk about what defines an autoimmune disease, a hypersensitivity reaction, and more. We'll also discuss Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis.
20. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
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