About This Chapter
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- Learn the functions of the immune system.
- Discuss the anatomical barriers of the immune system.
- Describe the causes and symptoms of inflammation.
- List the types and functions of granulocytes.
- Name the cells of the innate immune system.
- Describe the function of the complement system.
- Learn the different types of adaptive immunity.
- List the structures of the lymphatic system.
- Explain the functions of B cells and T cells.
- Define the humoral immune response.
- Discuss the structure and function of antibodies.
- Explore the different types of hypersensitivity.
- Learn how autoimmune diseases are related to hypersensitivity.
- Explain how blood types are determined.
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
In this lesson, you will be introduced to the immune system. You'll learn about the innate and adaptive immune system, Edward Jenner, haptens and immune tolerance.
2. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
This lesson will cover the major anatomical barriers to infection of the innate immune system. We'll explore skin flora, gut flora, gastric acid, lysozymes, and the mucociliary apparatus.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will cover the process of inflammation and what your body might do after a bee sting. We'll find out the five cardinal signs of inflammation as well as anaphylactic shock, histamine and cytokines in the process.
4. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn what a leukocyte, granulocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil are. You'll also learn about the importance of phagocytosis and chemotaxis.
5. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
This lesson will teach you about certain white blood cells of the innate immune system. Namely, we'll learn about phagocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and NK cells.
6. The Complement System: Definition and Function
This lesson will cover something known as the complement system. We'll delve into the key functions of this system, including opsonization, chemotaxis, and the formation of membrane attack complexes.
7. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity.
8. The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components
This lesson will cover something known as the lymphatic system. You'll learn about bone marrow, lymph, the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and much more as we explore this critical component of your immune system.
9. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
This lesson will teach about the birth, maturation, and importance of T cells. You'll learn about T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and more!
10. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific types of B-cells, such as plasma cells and memory cells.
11. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
This lesson will describe what humoral immunity is, how it is activated, what is produced, and why. Find out as we explore antigen presenting cells, MHC, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies.
12. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
This lesson will cover the basic but important structural components and sites of an antibody as well as their function. This includes heavy chains, light chains, variable domains, constant domains, paratopes, and epitopes.
13. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
This lesson will delve into the three main ways by which antibodies function. We're going to discuss opsonization, agglutination and neutralization. We'll also learn what the Fc region is and why it's important.
14. The Five Classes of Antibodies
This lesson will cover the five different classes, or isotypes, of antibodies. We will cover IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD, as well as their basic structure and function.
15. Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions
This lesson delves into something known as type I hypersensitivity reactions. You'll find out how everything from mast cells, basophils, and IgE to histamine, bee stings, and peanut allergies all play a role in this process.
16. Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss something known as a type II hypersensitivity reaction. We will go over the principal mechanisms by which it occurs as well as the major antibodies involved. In addition, we'll cover autoimmune hemolytic anemia and myasthenia gravis.
17. Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss what a type III hypersensitivity reaction causes. It will delve into which antibodies are involved, the creation of immune complexes, the development of arthritis, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis, and much more.
18. Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
This lesson will cover type IV hypersensitivity. We'll discuss the basics of how and why it occurs, the cells involved, and the most common types of diseases and conditions that are associated with this hypersensitivity reaction.
19. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
This lesson will talk about what defines an autoimmune disease, a hypersensitivity reaction, and more. We'll also discuss Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis.
20. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
21. Active Immunity: Definition, Types & Examples
In this lesson, you'll learn all about active immunity. We will discuss how active immunity works in the body, the different types of active immunity, as well as explore some examples.
22. Passive Immunity: Definition & Examples
Learn all about passive immunity, including the different kinds and the various ways it is acquired and used. Then, check your new knowledge by taking a short quiz.
23. What Are Antibodies? - Definition, Function & Types
Antibodies play a key role in the immune system. They begin the process of getting rid of the invaders that may cause harm or infection. This lesson covers how antibodies work and the different kinds of antibodies.
24. What is a Gene Pool? - Definition & Example
Your genes + everybody else's genes = the human gene pool. Learn about gene pools large and small, including how they can change and why they're more than meets the eye!
25. Atropine: Definition, Uses & Side Effects
This lesson will review the medication atropine. It will explore what it is used for and why. Last, it will review side effects associated with atropine.
26. Intramuscular Injection: Definition, Administration & Complications
In this lesson, you will learn about intramuscular injections, including how to give them properly and any problems that may occur during the procedure.
27. What Is Stomatitis? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
What is stomatitis? It's a condition that leads to soreness in the mouth - read this lesson to learn more about the causes, symptoms, and possible treatment options for a person who suffers from stomatitis.
28. Herd Immunity: Definition & Threshold
You may have heard about 'herd immunity' in the news recently, but not known exactly what it is. In this lesson you will learn about immunity, herd immunity, and thresholds for herd immunity.
29. Innate & Adaptive Immunity: Definitions & Differences
In this lesson you will discover what innate and adaptive immunity are. You will also learn the difference between the two types of immunity and the types of cells involved.
30. Monoclonal vs. Polyclonal Antibodies: Definition & Production
In this lesson, you'll discover what monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are. In addition, you'll learn how they're made, their uses, and some of the differences between them.
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