About This Chapter
Immunology and the Body's Defenses Against Pathogens - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
When you get sick, your body begins to react. Your immune system dispatches special fighters that will try to destroy the virus, bacteria or other irritant that has entered your body. In this chapter, you will learn more about your immune system. Lessons will explain how this body system works, why it does what it does and how it can sometimes backfire and cause you more harm than good. Some of the topics covered in the lessons in this chapter include:
- Lymph nodes
- Allergic reactions
|What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens||Examine what immunity is and how the immune system functions.|
|The Innate Immune System: Definition and Components||Take a look at the different defense mechanisms of the body.|
|What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms||Find out about what inflammation is and how it works.|
|Cell Mediated Immunity: How Granulocytes Function||Study the features of cell mediated immunity.|
|Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of Cell Mediated Immunity||Learn about topics that include NK cells, macrophages, phagocytosis, monocyte and dendritic cell.|
|The Complement System: Definition and Activation||Explore topics such as opsonization, chemotaxis, cell lysis, clumping, membrane attack complex, anaphylaxis, edema and apoptosis.|
|What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types||Discover the types of adaptive immunity.|
|The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components||Discuss the structures and functions of the lymphatic system.|
|What Are T Cells? - Creation, Structure & Function||Study the function and structure of T cells.|
|What Are B Cells? - Function and Types||Learn about topics that include B cells, plasma cells, antibody production and memory cells.|
|The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features||Take a look at the characteristics of the humoral immune response.|
|Antibodies: Their Important Structure||Find out about the structure of antibodies.|
|Antibodies Function In the Immune System||Discover the functions of antibodies.|
|The Different Classes of Antibodies||Examine the different classes of antibodies.|
|Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions||Explore the different types of hypersensitivity, specifically learning about allergic reactions.|
|Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity||Learn about the characteristics of cytotoxic hypersensitivity.|
|Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity||Understand the distinguishing features and diseases that occur with this type of hypersensitivity.|
|Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity||Find out more about this type of hypersensitivity.|
|Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity||Study the link between all four types of hypersensitivity and autoimmune issues.|
|Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups||Take a look at the different ways blood types are categorized.|
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
The immune system is an individual's private security system, protecting oneself from illness and disease. Learn about the immune system and two of its several defenses, the innate and adaptive immune systems, and explore how they work together and are affected by immune tolerance.
2. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
There are two main parts of the immune system: the innate immune system, made up of anatomical barriers, and the adaptive immune system. Discover the anatomical barriers of the immune system, how the skin and gut flora kill off bacteria, and the functions of the eyes and respiratory tract enzymes.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
When the body is attacked by something it deems harmful, a response called inflammation often occurs. Learn the definition of inflammation, its causes, symptoms, and its relationship to the immune system, and examine its components and influences in the body, the relationship between histamine and cytokines, and the short- and long-term consequences that can result from inflammation.
4. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
Granulocytes are white blood cells with granules in their cytoplasm. Discover the functions of granulocytes and the types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils in this lesson.
5. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
The innate immune system contains cells called macrophages that eat other cells in order to destroy them in a process called phagocytosis. Explore the roles of macrophages, monocytes, phagocytes, mast cells, and other natural killer cells that the immune system uses in its ongoing battle against infection.
6. The Complement System: Definition and Function
The complement system is part of the body's immune system that helps destroy microorganisms that cause infections. Learn about the complement system, including its definition and function. Explore how the complement system acts as a sprinkling for defense, and review opsonization, chemotaxis, and membrane attack complex.
7. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
The adaptive immune system learns to combat specific threats or antigens, allowing the body to adapt and fight new diseases. Learn the definition of adaptive immunity, and then explore the different types of adaptive immunity, including active, passive, naturally acquired, and artificially acquired immunity.
8. The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components
The lymphatic system is comprised of organs, vessels, tissues, and ducts that create and transport lymph throughout the body. Learn about the definition and fundamental components of the lymphatic system.
9. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
A T cell, also known as a T lymphocyte, is a white blood cell with a major role in the body's immune system. Learn about the creation and function of T cells, the roles of T helper cells, and the production and maturation of T cells.
10. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
B-cells are vital in the production of antibodies. Explore the function of B-cells and the types of B-cells such as naive B-cells, active B-cells, plasma cells, and memory cells. Plus, discover the rare disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia in this lesson.
11. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
The body's humoral immune response is designed to protect it from bacteria that cause infections. Learn about the definition of the humoral immune response and explore its features, including antigen presenting cells, B cells, and plasma cells. Understand how the humoral immune response helps defend the body from disease by engulfing and breaking down pathogens.
12. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, are structures that attack bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances in the body. Learn about antibody structure, their chains and domains, and the importance of the paratope and epitope.
13. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
Antibodies help your body fight off disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances in the blood. Learn how antibodies function in the immune system and how they use opsonization, agglutination, and neutralization to stop threats to the body.
14. The Five Classes of Antibodies
Antibodies help your body fight off disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances in the body. Learn the five classes of unique isotopes, including Immunoglobulins G, M, A, D, and E, and explore how they function.
15. Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions
A type I hypersensitivity reaction occurs when the immune system produces an overabundance of IgE antibodies to counteract an allergen. Learn more about the pathophysiology of type I hypersensitivity and discover how it relates to anaphylactic shock.
16. Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity is an antibody-mediated immune reaction that can result in impairment or destruction of bodily tissues. Learn about type II and cytotoxic hypersensitivities, how destruction occurs by connections in the body, and how type II hypersensitivity reactions cause disease.
17. Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity, or immune complex hypersensitivity, is when antibodies form aggregates of antibodies and antigens called immune complexes. Discover type III hypersensitivity reactions and how they can cause vasculitis, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis in this lesson.
18. Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
Humans can experience significant inflammatory reactions from delayed antigen responses caused by type IV hypersensitivity, also dubbed delayed-type hypersensitivity. Learn about type IV hypersensitivity, why T lymphocytes are dangerous to healthy cells and find examples of reactions and diseases.
19. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks the body's cells or receptors. Explore the friendly fire that creates autoimmune diseases and hypersensitivity reactions, and then discover the different types of autoimmune diseases.
20. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
Blood types are determined by antigens found in red blood cells. Learn about the blood types, red blood cell antigens, agglutination, the ABO system, the blood groups, and the definitions of universal donor and universal recipient blood types.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Microbiology course
- Biology Review
- Microbiology Basics
- Bacterial Biology
- Microbiology Laboratory Techniques
- Microorganisms and the Environment
- The Disease Process
- Protozoan Diseases
- Introduction to Viruses
- DNA Viruses
- RNA Viruses
- Fungal Infections
- Foodborne Illnesses and Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases
- Blood-borne Bacterial Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections
- Antimicrobial Drugs
- Food and Industrial Microbiology
- Sterilization and Antiseptic Techniques