About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering educational psychology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn educational psychology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding fluid and crystallized intelligence or methods of measuring intelligence
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning psychology (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about individual differences in children
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra psychology learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Individual Differences in Children chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Individual Differences in Children chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any individual differences in children question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an individual differences in children unit of a standard educational psychology course. Topics covered include:
- Multiple intelligences
- Parenting styles' impact on different styles of learners
- Sense of self and self-socialization
- Educating students with special needs
- Individual education plans
- Learning disabilities
- Advanced cognitive development
- Advantages of ability grouping and tracking in schools
1. Methods of Measuring Intelligence: Interpreting IQ Scores & Score Range
You've probably heard of 'IQ,' but do you really know what it means? This lesson covers the history and theory behind the famous idea of an intelligence quotient (including the inventor of IQ, Alfred Binet), and will help you learn how to understand and interpret IQ scores.
2. Two Types of Intelligence: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Are you better at memorizing facts or at assembling a piece of equipment using a diagram? These two tasks illustrate two different types of intelligence proposed by Raymond Cattell known as 'fluid intelligence' and 'crystallized intelligence.' This lesson covers both types and how each type might change over one's lifespan.
3. What is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Which types of intelligence do you identify with? As you watch this video on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, you'll learn that intelligence can be a diverse concept not limited to one area.
4. Impact of Parenting Styles on Different Styles of Learners
When you got in trouble as a child, how did your parents react? This lesson covers four different parenting styles identified in educational psychology, including authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and neglecting. Typical results from each parenting style are discussed in terms of children's behaviors, as well as application of the styles in a classroom environment.
5. The Effect of Culture, Socialization & Culture Shock on Education
In this lesson we will explore the effect of culture on the socialization of children. We will also seek to understand the impact that culture has on their educational experiences.
6. Sense of Self and Self-Socialization: The Development of Self-Views
In this lesson, we will explore the sense of self, self-socialization, and the two social scientists who contributed to this field. We will examine Charles Cooley's theory of the Looking-Glass Self and George Herbert Mead's stages of play, game, and generalized other.
7. Changes in Sense of Self From Childhood to Adolescence
In this lesson, we will be exploring James Marcia's theory of identity in relation to the sense of self changing from childhood to adolescence. You'll study the four ways in which children navigate their identities into adolescence: foreclosure, moratorium, achievement, and diffusion.
8. James Marcia's Identity Theory: Understanding Adolescents' Search For Identity
Do you really know what you want out of life or what your political and religious beliefs are? The psychologist James Marcia suggested that there are four identity statuses, or stages, in developing who we are as individuals. These stages are achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion. This lesson covers Marcia's theory and each identity status.
9. Educating Students with Special Needs
In this lesson, we will explore how to educate students with special needs. We will specifically address how the educational needs of these students are best served if they are in a mainstream classroom being taught alongside their peers.
10. Using an Individual Education Program (IEP) in the Classroom
In this lesson, we will explore what an Individual Education Program (IEP) is and the three key components of an IEP. We will also discuss who needs an IEP and who does not.
11. Learning Disabilities: How to Identify Children with a Learning Disability
Identifying children with a learning disability can be tricky because it can be confused with a lack of interest in a school subject. In this lesson, we will look at how learning disabilities can be identified and the three most common learning disabilities: dyscalculia, dysgraphia and dyslexia.
12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Definition of ADHD
This lesson explores common characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the best practices for teaching learners with this disorder.
13. Speech and Communication Disorders: Instructional Strategies for Speech Sound Errors
In this lesson, we will discuss the seven levels of articulation therapy, using F and T as the primary examples of the sounds that students have difficulty articulating.
14. Characteristics of Speech Sound Errors: Speech & Communication Disorders
In this lesson, we explore speech sound disorders, which include articulation deficits, phonological process disorder and fluency disorder. Also learn the characteristics of each of these disorders.
15. Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Asperger Syndrome
If you have never met a person with Asperger syndrome, you might wonder how they differ from you. In this lesson, we'll explore the behaviors common to people with Asperger and other autism spectrum disorders.
16. Cognitive & Social Functioning Delays: Adapting Instruction for Learners
When growing up, keeping pace with your classmates can be difficult, but for some it's much harder than others. In this lesson we will explore cognitive and social developmental milestones in terms of the developmental delays that affect school-age children.
17. Adapting Instruction for Learners With Sensory Challenges
In this lesson, we will discuss the general characteristics of children with sensory dysfunction and how teachers can adapt the classroom environment to accommodate these students.
18. Advanced Cognitive Development and Renzulli's Triad
In this lesson, we will explore advanced cognitive development in terms of a gifted child. We will also define what it means to be gifted and Joseph Renzulli's model of giftedness.
19. Ability Grouping and Tracking in Schools: Advantages and Disadvantages
In this lesson we will discuss within class grouping and between class grouping. In addition, we will review the pros and cons of between class grouping, also known as tracking.
20. Authoritarian Parents: Characteristics & Effects on Children
Psychology defines several different parenting styles that parents use when raising and disciplining their children. This lesson will define and explain the characteristics and effects of the authoritarian style of parenting.
21. David Wechsler on Intelligence, Overview
In this lesson, you will learn about the psychologist David Wechsler who introduced the theory that intelligence is a multidimensional global capacity that should be measured as an age-appropriate performance skill.
22. Impulsivity in Children with ADHD: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Impulsivity is one of the three categories of symptoms related to Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Learn more about the different types of ADHD, impulsivity, how they are related, and more.
23. Self Identity: Theory & Definition
Self-identity plays a large and significant role in shaping each of our lives. Learn about self-identity in psychology, and test your understanding with a quiz.
24. Teaching Economically Disadvantaged Students
Do you know you could have the next President of the United States sitting right in your classroom? What if that student came from an economically disadvantaged background? This lesson is designed to help teachers who teach economically disadvantaged students.
25. Articulation Therapy: Approaches & Techniques
Have you ever wondered why some children have difficulties forming sounds, or what can be done to help them communicate more clearly? Keep reading to learn more about articulation therapy and some of the fundamental techniques for correcting articulation errors.
26. At-Risk Students: Definition, Characteristics & Programs
This lesson examines the term 'at-risk' as it pertains to our students in education. We'll look at warning signs for at-risk students, both those that are easy to recognize and those that may be less obvious. Finally, we look at different programs schools offer to assist these students.
27. Autistic Speech Patterns: Definition, Types & Examples
Communication or speech patterns are important diagnostic features in autism. This lesson will explore communication impairments by identifying abnormal speech patterns, defining related terminology and giving appropriate examples.
28. Best Practices in Special Education
This lesson will highlight best practices in special education regardless of the student's classroom setting. A short quiz will follow that will test your knowledge.
29. Bridging the Digital Divide in Education
In this lesson, we will look at the issues posed by the digital divide that many teachers face in their classrooms, including strategies for finding technology to use in the classroom, and how to thoughtfully incorporate technology into lessons.
30. Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device: Definition & Explanation
Learn how it is that children learn to speak so rapidly and have an innate understanding of the rules of grammar and language. A short quiz follows to test your skills.
31. Early Reading Intervention: Programs & Purpose
This lesson highlights early reading intervention programs designed to support students who are at risk for failure in reading. It also discusses why intervention is important.
32. ESL Curriculum Development
This lesson will highlight some ways in which curriculum can be developed for English as a second language (ESL) classrooms and learners, as well as go over some instructional strategies to help support ESL students develop their language skills.
33. What Is Gifted Education? - History, Models & Issues
Gifted education is the area of education that focuses on the needs of gifted and talented students. Learn about the history, models, and issues involved in gifted education and test your knowledge with quiz questions.
34. What is Reflective Teaching? - Definition & Methods
Find out what reflective teaching is and how to apply it in your teaching practice. Learn basic methods of reflective teaching. Read the lesson, then take a quiz to test your knowledge.
35. Special Populations in Education: Definition & Examples
Obviously, every student is special, but educators sometimes need to focus on populations whose needs are greater than others. This lesson will introduce you to the concept of special populations in education.
36. Understanding Diverse Learning Needs
Students each have unique skills, abilities, and needs that need to be addressed. This lesson will explain several ways students can be different from one another and how you can tailor your instruction to address their needs.
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Other chapters within the Educational Psychology: Help and Review course
- History and Educational Aims: Help and Review
- Developmental Psychology in Children and Adolescents: Help and Review
- Motivation in Learning: Help and Review
- Assessments of Learning: Help and Review
- Cognitive Perspective in Psychology: Help and Review
- Behavioral Perspective in Psychology: Help and Review
- Research Design and Analysis: Help and Review
- Instructional Pedagogy: Help and Review
- Student Development & Differences