About This Chapter
Individual Differences in Children - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Our lessons will teach you about the various methods used to measure intelligence. Take a deeper look at IQ testing and scores so you can understand what the scores mean and how the tests work. Discover the two types of intelligence - fluid and crystallized. Also study Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.
See how parenting style can affect the learning style of individuals. Learn about the types of parenting and how to recognize the impact of the chosen parenting method. Also look at the effects of culture on learning. Study concepts like socialization and culture shock.
Our lessons will also help you to learn about self-development. Study concepts like sense of self and self-socialization. Find out the factors that influence how individuals define who they are. This is complemented by lessons that show you how the sense of self evolves as a person grows from a child to an adolescent. Go deeper with a look at James Marcia's Identity Theory.
From here, you can move into lessons covering a range of disabilities that can hinder an individual's ability to learn. Discover how to work with students who have special needs. Do in-depth study through our lessons on how to identify students with learning disabilities, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, speech disorders, behavioral disorders and more. Get explanations of the different disorders and tips on how to teach students who have them. Learn how the student's disorder can affect his or her ability to learn and work in a typical educational environment.
Finish up by watching our lesson about ability grouping and tracking in schools. See how these things work, if at all. Thanks for watching!
1. Methods of Measuring Intelligence: Interpreting IQ Scores & Score Range
You've probably heard of 'IQ,' but do you really know what it means? This lesson covers the history and theory behind the famous idea of an intelligence quotient (including the inventor of IQ, Alfred Binet), and will help you learn how to understand and interpret IQ scores.
2. Two Types of Intelligence: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Are you better at memorizing facts or at assembling a piece of equipment using a diagram? These two tasks illustrate two different types of intelligence proposed by Raymond Cattell known as 'fluid intelligence' and 'crystallized intelligence.' This lesson covers both types and how each type might change over one's lifespan.
3. What is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
Which types of intelligence do you identify with? As you watch this video on Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, you'll learn that intelligence can be a diverse concept not limited to one area.
4. Impact of Parenting Styles on Different Styles of Learners
When you got in trouble as a child, how did your parents react? This lesson covers four different parenting styles identified in educational psychology, including authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and neglecting. Typical results from each parenting style are discussed in terms of children's behaviors, as well as application of the styles in a classroom environment.
5. The Effect of Culture, Socialization & Culture Shock on Education
In this lesson we will explore the effect of culture on the socialization of children. We will also seek to understand the impact that culture has on their educational experiences.
6. Sense of Self and Self-Socialization: The Development of Self-Views
In this lesson, we will explore the sense of self, self-socialization, and the two social scientists who contributed to this field. We will examine Charles Cooley's theory of the Looking-Glass Self and George Herbert Mead's stages of play, game, and generalized other.
7. Changes in Sense of Self From Childhood to Adolescence
In this lesson, we will be exploring James Marcia's theory of identity in relation to the sense of self changing from childhood to adolescence. You'll study the four ways in which children navigate their identities into adolescence: foreclosure, moratorium, achievement, and diffusion.
8. James Marcia's Identity Theory: Understanding Adolescents' Search For Identity
Do you really know what you want out of life or what your political and religious beliefs are? The psychologist James Marcia suggested that there are four identity statuses, or stages, in developing who we are as individuals. These stages are achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion. This lesson covers Marcia's theory and each identity status.
9. Educating Students with Special Needs
In this lesson, we will explore how to educate students with special needs. We will specifically address how the educational needs of these students are best served if they are in a mainstream classroom being taught alongside their peers.
10. Using an Individual Education Program (IEP) in the Classroom
In this lesson, we will explore what an Individual Education Program (IEP) is and the three key components of an IEP. We will also discuss who needs an IEP and who does not.
11. Learning Disabilities: How to Identify Children with a Learning Disability
Identifying children with a learning disability can be tricky because it can be confused with a lack of interest in a school subject. In this lesson, we will look at how learning disabilities can be identified and the three most common learning disabilities: dyscalculia, dysgraphia and dyslexia.
12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Definition of ADHD
This lesson explores common characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the best practices for teaching learners with this disorder.
13. Speech and Communication Disorders: Instructional Strategies for Speech Sound Errors
In this lesson, we will discuss the seven levels of articulation therapy, using F and T as the primary examples of the sounds that students have difficulty articulating.
14. Characteristics of Speech Sound Errors: Speech & Communication Disorders
In this lesson, we explore speech sound disorders, which include articulation deficits, phonological process disorder and fluency disorder. Also learn the characteristics of each of these disorders.
15. Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Asperger Syndrome
If you have never met a person with Asperger syndrome, you might wonder how they differ from you. In this lesson, we'll explore the behaviors common to people with Asperger and other autism spectrum disorders.
16. Cognitive & Social Functioning Delays: Adapting Instruction for Learners
When growing up, keeping pace with your classmates can be difficult, but for some it's much harder than others. In this lesson we will explore cognitive and social developmental milestones in terms of the developmental delays that affect school-age children.
17. Adapting Instruction for Learners With Sensory Challenges
In this lesson, we will discuss the general characteristics of children with sensory dysfunction and how teachers can adapt the classroom environment to accommodate these students.
18. Advanced Cognitive Development and Renzulli's Triad
In this lesson, we will explore advanced cognitive development in terms of a gifted child. We will also define what it means to be gifted and Joseph Renzulli's model of giftedness.
19. Ability Grouping and Tracking in Schools: Advantages and Disadvantages
In this lesson we will discuss within class grouping and between class grouping. In addition, we will review the pros and cons of between class grouping, also known as tracking.
20. What Is Dysgraphia? - Symptoms, Treatment & Definition
Dysgraphia is a type of learning disability that affects your ability to write. Learn more about the causes of dysgraphia, its symptoms, and how it is treated in this lesson.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Psychology 102: Educational Psychology course